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1.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2308.13176v1

ABSTRACT

Social networks exhibit a complex graph-like structure due to the uncertainty surrounding potential collaborations among participants. Machine learning algorithms possess generic outstanding performance in multiple real-world prediction tasks. However, whether machine learning algorithms outperform specific algorithms designed for graph link prediction remains unknown to us. To address this issue, the Adamic-Adar Index (AAI), Jaccard Coefficient (JC) and common neighbour centrality (CNC) as representatives of graph-specific algorithms were applied to predict potential collaborations, utilizing data from volunteer activities during the Covid-19 pandemic in Shenzhen city, along with the classical machine learning algorithms such as random forest, support vector machine, and gradient boosting as single predictors and components of ensemble learning. This paper introduces that the AAI algorithm outperformed the traditional JC and CNC, and other machine learning algorithms in analyzing graph node attributes for this task.

2.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2301923.v1

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease pandemic has fostered major advances in vaccination technologies; however, there are urgent needs of mucosal immune responses and single-dose, non-invasive administration. Here, we develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for single-dose, dry-powder aerosol inhalation that induces potent systemic and mucosal immune responses. Our vaccine encapsulates proteinaceous cholera toxin B subunit-assembled nanoparticles displaying the SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigen (R-CNP) within microcapsules of optimal aerodynamic size, and such unique nano-micro coupled structure supports efficient alveoli delivery, sustained R-CNP release, and antigen presenting cell uptake, which are favorable for invocation of immune responses. Moreover, our vaccine successfully induces robust serological IgG and secretory IgA production, collectively conferring effective protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge (including pseudovirus and the authentic virus) in mice, hamsters, and non-human primates. Finally, we also demonstrate a “mosaic iteration” of our vaccine that co-displays ancestral and Omicron’s antigens, thus extending the breadth of antibody response against co-circulating strains and transmission of Omicron variant. These findings support our inhalable vaccine as a promising candidate to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease, and transmission.

3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2469-2474, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896594

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the response and safety of an inactivated vaccine (Sinovac Life Sciences Co., Ltd., Beijing, China) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in liver transplant (LTx) recipients from China. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five recipients post LTx from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine who received inactivated vaccine from June to October 2021 were screened. Information regarding vaccine side effects and clinical data were collected. Results: Thirty-five LTx recipients were enrolled, with a mean age of 46 years, and most patients were male (30, 85.71%). All the participants had a negative history of COVID-19 infection. Predictors for negative response in the recipients were interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) induction during LTx, shorter time post LTx and application of a derivative from mycophenolate acid (MPA). No serious adverse events were observed during the progress of vaccination or after the vaccination. Conclusion: LTx recipients have a substantially partial immunological response to the inactivated vaccine for COVID-19. IL-2R induction during LTx, a shorter time post LTx and the application of a derivative from MPA seem to be predictors for a negative serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response in recipients. The findings require booster vaccination in these LTx recipients.

4.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1764653.v1

ABSTRACT

Current clinically applied cancer immunotherapies largely focus on the ability of CD8+ cytolytic T-cells to directly recognise and kill tumour cells1–3. These strategies are limited by the emergence of MHC-I-deficient or IFN-unresponsive tumour cells and the development of an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment4–6. CD4+ effector T-cells can contribute to tumour immune defence independent of CD8+ T-cells. However, the potential and the mechanisms of CD4+ T-cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity are incompletely understood7–12. Here, we show how an indirect CD4+ T-cell-mediated mode of action, that is fundamentally different from CD8+ T-cells, enables the eradication of tumours that would otherwise escape direct T-cell targeting. CD4+ effector T-cells preferentially cluster at tumour invasive margins where they engage in antigen-specific interactions with MHC-II+CD11c+ cells, while CD8+ T-cells briskly infiltrate tumour tissues. CD4+ T-cells and innate immune stimulation reprogram the tumour-associated inflammatory monocyte network towards IFN-activated antigen-presenting and tumouricidal effector phenotypes. This results in an amplification loop driving the release of T-cell-derived IFNγ and myeloid cell-derived nitric oxide which cooperatively induce apoptotic death of MHC-deficient and IFN-unresponsive tumour cells that escape cytolytic CD8+ T-cell therapy. Exploiting the ability of CD4+ T-cells to orchestrate indirect inflammatory killing of tumour cells complements the direct cytolytic activity of T-cells to advance cancer immunotherapies.

5.
Psychol Health Med ; 26(1): 13-22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832788

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 occurs suddenly and is highly contagious, this will inevitably cause people anxiety, depression, etc. The study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the COVID-19 outbreak is of practical significance. Methods: 600 valid questionnaires were received. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used. Results: Females' anxiety risk was 3.01 times compared to males (95% CI 1.39-6.52). Compared with people below 40 years old, the anxiety risk of people above 40 years old was 0.40 times (95% CI 0.16-0.99). SDS results indicated that the difference between education level and occupation was statistically significant (p = 0.024, 0.005). Compared to people with a master's degree or above, those with a bachelor's degree group had a depression risk of 0.39 times (95% CI 0.17-0.87). Compared with professionals, industrial service workers and other staff had a depression risk of 0.31 times (95% CI 0.15-0.65) and 0.38 times (95% CI 0.15-0.93). Conclusions: 600 questionnaire participants were psychologically stable. Non-anxiety and non-depression rates were 93.67% and 82.83%, respectively. There were anxiety in 6.33% and depression in 17.17%. Therefore, we should pay attention to the psychological states of the public.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
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