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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323529

ABSTRACT

Background: Whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic would affect pregnancy-associated factors of uninfected pregnant women was rarely reported.Methods: A total of 32,277 pregnant women from six sites (Hubei Province, Guangdong Province, Hebei Province, Shandong Province, Yunnan Province and Beijing City) were finally recruited. We conducted a retrospective combined cohort study to analyze the associations between the number of prenatal examinations (NPE), delivery gestational week (DGW), the risk of caesarean section (CS), stillbirth, neonatal weight, preterm birth, macrosomia, small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and the COVID-19 in two time-periods, the pre-pandemic period (P-2019, 1/1/19-5/31/19) and the pandemic period (P-2020, 1/1/20-5/31/20).Findings: After adjusting for other covariates, we found the NPE, DGW, and SGA were negatively associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas the CS and preterm birth rates were positively associated with the COVID-19, with adjusted relative risks (aRRs) of 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.17] and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.02–1.84) respectively in Hubei. For Guangdong, the associations of CS and preterm birth with the COVID-19 were similar in Hubei. In contrast, limited associations were evident in other areas, except for a positive association with macrosomia [aRR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.55)] in Beijing.Interpretation: The CS and preterm birth rates increased slightly in areas that were more affected by the pandemic than other areas among uninfected pregnant women. NPEs were not significantly interrupted and most maternal and neonatal clinical characteristics were within the normal ranges.Funding: National Key Research and Development Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China and National Health Commission Capacity Building and Continuing Education Center.Declaration of Interests: All authors declare to have no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Peking University ethics board (no. IRB00001052-20025).

2.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(1): e28183, 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media has become an important source of health information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Very little is known about the potential mental impact of social media use on pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the association between using social media for health information and risk perception for COVID-19, worry due to COVID-19, and depression among pregnant women in China. METHODS: A total of 4580 pregnant women were recruited from various provinces of China. The participants completed a cross-sectional, web-based survey in March 2020. RESULTS: More than one-third (1794/4580, 39.2%) of the participants reported always using social media for obtaining health information. Results of structural equation modeling showed that the frequency of social media use for health information was positively associated with perceived susceptibility (ß=.05; P<.001) and perceived severity (ß=.12; P<.001) of COVID-19, which, in turn, were positively associated with worry due to COVID-19 (ß=.19 and ß=.72, respectively; P<.001). Perceived susceptibility (ß=.09; P<.001), perceived severity (ß=.08; P<.001), and worry due to COVID-19 (ß=.15; P<.001) all had a positive association with depression. Bootstrapping analysis showed that the indirect effects of frequency of social media use for health information on both worry due to COVID-19 (ß=.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12) and depression (ß=.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence on how social media use for health information might have a negative impact on the mental health of pregnant women. Interventions are needed to equip this population with the skills to use social media properly and with caution.

3.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(1): e28183, 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media has become an important source of health information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Very little is known about the potential mental impact of social media use on pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the association between using social media for health information and risk perception for COVID-19, worry due to COVID-19, and depression among pregnant women in China. METHODS: A total of 4580 pregnant women were recruited from various provinces of China. The participants completed a cross-sectional, web-based survey in March 2020. RESULTS: More than one-third (1794/4580, 39.2%) of the participants reported always using social media for obtaining health information. Results of structural equation modeling showed that the frequency of social media use for health information was positively associated with perceived susceptibility (ß=.05; P<.001) and perceived severity (ß=.12; P<.001) of COVID-19, which, in turn, were positively associated with worry due to COVID-19 (ß=.19 and ß=.72, respectively; P<.001). Perceived susceptibility (ß=.09; P<.001), perceived severity (ß=.08; P<.001), and worry due to COVID-19 (ß=.15; P<.001) all had a positive association with depression. Bootstrapping analysis showed that the indirect effects of frequency of social media use for health information on both worry due to COVID-19 (ß=.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12) and depression (ß=.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence on how social media use for health information might have a negative impact on the mental health of pregnant women. Interventions are needed to equip this population with the skills to use social media properly and with caution.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e24053, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease that has created health care challenges worldwide. Pregnant women are particularly affected by this disease. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to assess the levels of perceived threat (susceptibility, severity, impact), negative emotions (fear, worry), and self-efficacy of pregnant women in China related to COVID-19 and to examine their associations with mental health (depression and anxiety) and personal protective behavior (wearing a face mask). METHODS: A total of 4087 pregnant women from China completed a cross-sectional web-based survey between March 3 and 10, 2020. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable depression and anxiety was 48.7% (1989/4087) and 33.0% (1347/4087), respectively; 23.8% participants (974/4087) reported always wearing a face mask when going out. Of the 4087 participants, 32.1% (1313) and 36.4% (1490) perceived themselves or their family members to be susceptible to COVID-19 infection, respectively; 3216-3518 (78.7%-86.1%) agreed the disease would have various severe consequences. Additionally, 2275 of the 4087 participants (55.7%) showed self-efficacy in protecting themselves from contracting COVID-19, and 2232 (54.6%) showed efficacy in protecting their family members; 1303 (31.9%) reported a high level of fear of the disease, and 2780-3056 (68.0%-74.8%) expressed worry about various aspects of COVID-19. The results of the multivariate multinominal logistic regression analyses showed that perceived severity, perceived impact, fear, and worry were risk factors for probable depression and anxiety, while self-efficacy was a protective factor. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perceived susceptibility was associated with always wearing a face mask. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese pregnant women showed high levels of mental distress but low levels of personal protective behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions are needed to promote the mental health and health behavior of pregnant women during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Health Behavior , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women/psychology , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Masks , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 37, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has caused significant toll over the globe. Pregnant women are at risk of infection. The present study examined the frequency of washing hands with soap and wearing face mask when going out, prevalence of depression and anxiety, and identified their associated factors among pregnant women during the early phase of COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 24 February and 3 March 2020. A total of 15 428 pregnant women who were using maternal health care services in China completed a questionnaire which assessed their socio-demographic and pregnancy-related characteristics, contextual, cognitive and social factors related to COVID-19, frequency of washing hands and wearing face masks, and depression and anxiety. Logistics regression analyses were performed to identify the associated factors of preventive behaviours and mental health. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable anxiety and depression was 28.2% and 43.6% respectively. 19.8% reported always wearing face mask when going out, and 19.1% reported washing hands with soap for more than 10 times per day. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that older age was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety (OR = 0.42-0.67) and higher frequency of washing hands (OR = 1.57-3.40). Higher level of education level was associated with probable depression (OR = 1.31-1.45) and higher frequency of wearing face mask (OR = 1.50-1.57). After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and pregnancy-related factors, place of residence being locked down (aOR = 1.10-1.11), being quarantined (aOR = 1.42-1.57), personally knowing someone being infected with COVID-19 (aOR = 1.80-1.92), perception that COVID-19 would pose long term physical harm to human (aOR = 1.25-1.28) were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety, while the perception that the disease will be under control in the coming month was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety (aOR = 0.59-0.63) and lower tendency of always wearing face mask (aOR = 0.85). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety (aOR = 0.86-0,87) and higher frequency of washing hands (aOR = 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: The mental health and preventive behaviours of pregnant women during COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a range of socio-demographic, pregnancy-related, contextual, cognitive and social factors. Interventions to mitigate their mental health problems and to promote preventive behaviours are highly warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Mental Health , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , China , Depression/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Hand Disinfection/trends , Humans , Logistic Models , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Odds Ratio , Personal Protective Equipment , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Prenatal Care , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(10): 199-206, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116445

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: What is already known about this topic? The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic potentially affected prenatal care quality and maternal and fetal outcomes globally.What is added by this report? During COVID-19 pandemic period, the rates of caesarean sections (CS) and preterm birth for uninfected pregnant women increased slightly in areas that were relatively severely impacted by the pandemic in China. The overall number of prenatal examinations did not dramatically decrease, while the eligible examinations significantly decreased in Hubei Province.What are the implications for public health practice? Routine prenatal examinations had been well maintained during the pandemic period in China. In the future, in-time prenatal examinations should be provided to improve the quality of screening and management of high-risk pregnancy under pandemic-affected circumstances. Psychological counseling and transfer treatment channels should be strengthened for pregnant women during lockdown period.

8.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(2): e24162, 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are prevalent among pregnant women, and it is expected that their mental health will worsen during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the underutilization of mental health services among pregnant women has been widely documented. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify factors that are associated with pregnant women's intentions to seek mental health services. We specifically assessed pregnant women who were at risk of mental health problems in mainland China. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted from February to March, 2020 among 19,515 pregnant women who were recruited from maternal health care centers across various regions of China. A subsample of 6248 pregnant women with probable depression (ie, those with a score of ≥10 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire) or anxiety (ie, those with a score of ≥5 on the 7-item General Anxiety Disorder Scale) was included in our analysis. RESULTS: More than half (3292/6248, 52.7%) of the participants reported that they did not need mental health services. Furthermore, 28.3% (1770/6248) of participants felt that they needed mental health services, but had no intentions of seeking help, and only 19% (1186/6248) felt that they needed mental health services and had intentions of seek help. The results from our multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, education level, and gestational age were factors of not seeking help. However, COVID-19-related lockdowns in participants' cities of residence, social support during the COVID-19 pandemic, and trust in health care providers were protective factors of participants' intentions to seek help from mental health services. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that promote seeking help for mental health problems among pregnant women should also promote social support from health care providers and trust between pregnant women and their care providers.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24495, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although lockdown and mandatory quarantine measures have played crucial roles in the sharp decrease of the number of newly confirmed/suspected COVID-19 cases, concerns have been raised over the threat that these measures pose to mental health, especially the mental health of vulnerable groups, including pregnant women. Few empirical studies have assessed whether and how these control measures may affect mental health, and no study has investigated the prevalence and impacts of the use of eHealth resources among pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated (1) the effects of lockdown and mandatory quarantine on mental health problems (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms), (2) the potential mediation effects of perceived social support and maladaptive cognition, and (3) the moderation effects of eHealth-related factors (ie, using social media to obtain health information and using prenatal care services during the COVID-19 pandemic) on pregnant women in China. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 19,515 pregnant women from all 34 Chinese provincial-level administrative regions from February 25 to March 10, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 19,515 participants, 12,209 (62.6%) were subjected to lockdown in their areas of residence, 737 (3.8%) were subjected to mandatory quarantine, 8712 (44.6%) had probable mild to severe depression, 5696 (29.2%) had probable mild to severe anxiety, and 1442 (7.4%) had suicidal ideations. Only 640 (3.3%) participants reported that they used online prenatal care services during the outbreak. Significant sociodemographic/maternal factors of anxiety/depressive symptoms included age, education, occupation, the area of residence, gestational duration, the number of children born, complication during pregnancy, the means of using prenatal care services, and social media use for obtaining health information. Multiple indicators multiple causes modeling (χ214=495.21; P<.05; comparative fit index=.99; nonnormed fit index=.98; root mean square error of approximation=.04, 90% CI 0.038-0.045) showed that quarantine was directly and indirectly strongly associated with poor mental health through decreased perceived social support and increased maladaptive cognition (B=.04; ß=.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.02; P=.001), while lockdown was indirectly associated with mental health through increased social support and maladaptive cognition among pregnant women (B=.03; ß=.03, 95% CI 0.02-0.03; P=.001). Multigroup analyses revealed that the use of social media for obtaining health information and the means of using prenatal care services were significant moderators of the model paths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide epidemiological evidence for the importance of integrating mental health care and eHealth into the planning and implementation of control measure policies. The observed social and cognitive mechanisms and moderators in this study are modifiable, and they can inform the design of evidence-based mental health promotion among pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires
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