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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2356, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706307

ABSTRACT

Effective testing is essential to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. Here we report a-proof-of-concept study on hyperspectral image analysis in the visible and near-infrared range for primary screening at the point-of-care of SARS-CoV-2. We apply spectral feature descriptors, partial least square-discriminant analysis, and artificial intelligence to extract information from optical diffuse reflectance measurements from 5 µL fluid samples at pixel, droplet, and patient levels. We discern preparations of engineered lentiviral particles pseudotyped with the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 from those with the G protein of the vesicular stomatitis virus in saline solution and artificial saliva. We report a quantitative analysis of 72 samples of nasopharyngeal exudate in a range of SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, and a descriptive study of another 32 fresh human saliva samples. Sensitivity for classification of exudates was 100% with peak specificity of 87.5% for discernment from PCR-negative but symptomatic cases. Proposed technology is reagent-free, fast, and scalable, and could substantially reduce the number of molecular tests currently required for COVID-19 mass screening strategies even in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Exudates and Transudates/virology , Mass Screening/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing , Proof of Concept Study
2.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 143: 106955, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641722

ABSTRACT

Interactions between anti-hypertensive agents (ACEI), comorbidities, inflammation, and stress status may impact hospital stay duration in COVID-19 patients. This retrospective study analyzed epidemiological data, comorbidities, metabolic/inflammatory markers, and clinical information from 165 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. In a multiple linear regression model, an IL-6 higher than 100 mg/L, glucose at admission (baseline levels at the hospital entry), and the interaction between ACEI administration and LDH predicted the days of hospital admission (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hypertensive patients suffering more severe inflammatory condition assessed by LDH levels clinically benefited more and reduced the hospital stay when prescribed ACEI agents than those with lower systemic baseline inflammation at admission.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(5): 1068-1074, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285624

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) encompasses a wide spectrum of symptoms, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, hematological, and dermatological manifestations. The virus interaction with cells located in the respiratory tract causes the release of inflammatory mediators, whose involvement could be exacerbated by co-existing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Objectives: the objective of this research was to analyze the clinically metabolic status in patients who have suffered COVID-19 disease in order to predict the outcome. Methods: this research is a retrospective study based on a cohort of 165 consecutively admitted patients with criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia according to WHO guidelines at the Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro between March and April 2020. Recorded variables included demographic and epidemiological data plus diagnoses as well as morbid complications during hospitalization. The Biochemistry Unit Laboratory carried out laboratory analyses according to validated operational procedures. The statistical tests included univariate and multivariate models adjusted for baseline characteristics and clinically relevant features. Results: the most frequent comorbidity in our cohort was arterial hypertension (44.0 %), followed by dyslipidemia (32.1 %), obesity (30.9 %), and diabetes mellitus (20.0 %). The association between admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) with body mass index (BMI) in a multivariate model was statistically significant, evidencing that obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) have a 19 % higher risk of requiring ICU care. The univariate model revealed a statistically significant association between obesity and ICU admission and length of hospital stay (p < 0.05). The relationship between baseline blood glucose and in-hospital mortality was also statistically significant (p = 0.03), as well as with total cholesterol and ICU admission (p = 0.007). Conclusions: obesity is related to a longer time of hospitalization and a higher rate of admissions to the ICU. Low total cholesterol levels and abnormal baseline blood glucose were risk factors for ICU requirement and in-hospital mortality. Patient categorization based on obesity could be valuable in the development of a precision medicine model within the COVID-19 pandemic.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: la enfermedad por COVID-19 engloba un amplio espectro de síntomas entre los que destacan los trastornos respiratorios, digestivos, hematológicos y dermatológicos. La interacción del virus con las células ubicadas en el tracto respiratorio provoca la liberación de mediadores inflamatorios cuya producción podría estar relacionada con la obesidad, la diabetes y los eventos cardiovasculares. Objetivos: analizar el estado metabólico al ingreso de los pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 y su capacidad para predecir el desenlace clínico. Métodos: este trabajo consiste en un estudio retrospectivo basado en una cohorte de 165 pacientes ingresados consecutivamente en el Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda entre marzo y abril de 2020 con criterios de neumonía COVID-19 según las pautas de la OMS. Las variables registradas incluyeron datos socio-demográficos y epidemiológicos, herramientas diagnósticas y complicaciones durante el ingreso hospitalario. El Servicio de Bioquímica del centro realizó los análisis de laboratorio empleando procedimientos validados. El estudio estadístico incluye modelos univariantes y multivariados, ajustados por las características basales clínicamente relevantes de la población. Resultados: la comorbilidad más frecuente en nuestra población fue la hipertensión arterial (44,0 %), seguida por la dislipemia (32,1 %), la obesidad (30,9 %) y la diabetes mellitus (20,0 %). En el análisis multivariante, la asociación del ingreso en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) resultó estadísticamente significativa, con un 19 % más de riesgo en aquellos pacientes con IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2. El modelo univariante reveló la asociación estadísticamente significativa de la obesidad y el ingreso en la UCI con la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (p < 0,05). La relación entre glucemia basal y mortalidad intrahospitalaria también resultó estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,03). Los niveles bajos de colesterol total se asociaron a una tasa mayor de ingresos en la UCI (p = 0,007). Conclusiones: la obesidad se asocia a una mayor estancia hospitalaria y necesidad de ingreso en la UCI en los pacientes infectados por el SARS-CoV-2. El descenso en las cifras de colesterol total y una glucemia basal alterada son factores de riesgo del ingreso en la UCI y la mortalidad intrahospitalaria. La categorización en función del grado de obesidad de los pacientes podría ser de utilidad en el desarrollo de un modelo de medicina de precisión en el contexto de la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102196

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While there are no pharmacological treatments with proven efficacy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), tocilizumab has emerged as a candidate therapy. Some aspects of this therapy are still unknown, including the optimal timing of administration. OBJECTIVE: This observational study aimed to compare the 90-day mortality in two cohorts of patients when the drug was administered within the first 10 days from onset of symptoms or after day 11. METHODS: Patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who had received tocilizumab were divided into two groups according to when the medication was administered. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, clinical improvement on a 6-item scale by day 6, biomarker improvement by day 6, radiological image improvement by day 10 and SaO2 quotient by day 6. The results in the two groups were compared. Additionally, adverse events relating to tocilizumab were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were analysed. Both groups were epidemiologically comparable. The results obtained in the primary efficacy variable of the study (90-day mortality) showed a statistically significant difference in the subgroups according to the time of administration of tocilizumab (18.6% vs 5.0%, p=0.048). There was clinical improvement in 24.1% of patients at 6 days, with similar behaviour in both subgroups. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of patients who achieved radiological improvement at 10 days or in the other inflammatory parameters, with the exception of significant reductions in lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein. Administration of tocilizumab was not associated with relevant adverse events. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of data regarding the timing of administration of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. A strategy involving tocilizumab administration after 10 days from onset of symptoms may decrease mortality. Further randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm this emerging hypothesis.

8.
In Vivo ; 35(1): 635-639, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The perspective validation of a selective approach in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery was performed in order to assess whether patients as well as Health Care Workers (HCWs) were exposed to any undue risk of COVD-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 9th to June 9th 2020, 207 patients were phone-triaged by a dedicated Breast Care Nurse; a patient-tailored program was adopted with the aim of avoiding hospitalization of SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic patients, with a careful prioritization of surgical procedures according to specific disease features. RESULTS: Two hundred and three out of 207 patients underwent operation; seven patients were temporarily excluded because they tested positive at phone triage (n=3), or in-hospital triage (n=3); another asymptomatic patient with negative NP swab tested IgM Ab-positive so that surgery was re-scheduled two weeks later. Four patients had no surgery; one of them was reconsidered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) after testing positive at phone triage; three patients were excluded because they were already hospitalized for COVID-19. Overall, mean in-hospital stay was 2.2 days (±SD, 0.7) and, after hospital discharge, no patient required readmission. CONCLUSION: This preventive program avoided any COVID-19 infection among patients and HCWs, so that an elective breast cancer surgical procedure can be safely and timely pursued without affecting the oncologic outcome.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Mastectomy/methods , Preventive Health Services/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Triage/methods
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