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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e063530, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) Assess the distribution of skin-to-deltoid-muscle distance (SDMD) at the deltoid intramuscular (IM) injection site; (2) its relationship with demographic and anthropometric variables and (3) Consider the findings in relation to clinical guidance on IM injection, such as COVID-19 vaccines. DESIGN: Systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS between June and July 2021 with no publication date limit. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting measurements of the SDMD in living adults aged 16 years and older, at the deltoid IM injection site, published in English were considered. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers performed each stage of screening, data extraction and quality assessments using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for analytical cross sectional studies. RESULTS: 16 105 papers were identified, of which 11 studies were suitable for review, representing 1414 participants. Heterogeneity in the definition of the deltoid IM injection site, locations measured and methods of measurement precluded meta-analysis. Evidence from ultrasound SDMD measurements demonstrated some patients in all but 'underweight' body mass index (BMI) categories, may require needles longer than 25 mm for successful IM injection. Calliper measurements overestimated SDMD compared with ultrasound. Female sex, higher BMI categories and greater weight in women were associated with greater SDMD. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed evidence was insufficient to inform definitive needle length 'cut points' for IM injection based on demographic or anthropomorphic variables. Contemporary clinical guidance currently based on this evidence, including the site of injection and choice of needle length, may result in subcutaneous administration in a small proportion of recipients, particularly if obese or of female sex. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021264625.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Needles
2.
J Cogn Psychother ; 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847011

ABSTRACT

We describe the perceptions of mental health clinicians practicing in the United States about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation and treatment course of active clients with anxiety. Clinician participants reported on client symptomology at the beginning of treatment, just before (prior to March 2020), and at a mid-pandemic timepoint (December 2020/January 2021). An initial sample of 70 clinicians responded to a survey assessing their clients' overall anxiety severity, anxiety sensitivity, pathological uncertainty, family accommodation, and avoidance levels. Of these, 54 clinician responses were included in study analyses, providing detailed clinical information on 81 clients. Findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increases in anxiety severity in the majority of clients; overall, clinicians reported that 53% of clients had symptoms worsen due to COVID-19 and that only 16% experienced improvement of symptoms during treatment. Those who had lower levels of avoidance pre-pandemic and those who increased their frequency of treatment were more likely to experience increases in anxiety severity by the mid-pandemic timepoint. Further research is needed to understand the extended effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety symptomology and treatment.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 301: 130-137, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased stress, anxiety, and depression in children. A six-session, parent-led, transdiagnostic, cognitive-behavioral teletherapy program was adapted from an established protocol to help youth aged between 5 and 13 years manage emotional problems during the pandemic. METHODS: One-hundred twenty-nine parents of youth struggling with emotional problems during the COVID-19 pandemic participated in the program. Parents reported on their children's psychosocial functioning before and after treatment using validated assessments. They also reported on treatment satisfaction. Clinician-rated global improvement was assessed at each session to determine clinically significant treatment response. RESULTS: Significant improvements in parent proxy-reported anxiety (d = 0.56), depression (d = 0.69), stress (d = 0.61), anger (d = 0.69), family relationships (d = 0.32), and COVID-19-related distress (d = 1.08) were found, with 62% of participants who completed the program being classified as treatment responders. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by use of primarily parent-report assessments and a lack of a control group. CONCLUSIONS: Brief, parent-led, transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral teletherapy appeared to be an effective way to help youth cope with the pandemic and may be a scalable framework in response to large-scale mental health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cognition , Depression , Humans , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Child Health Care ; 51(2): 213-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557010

ABSTRACT

Given that children and adolescents are at critical periods of development, they may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a descriptive phenomenological approach, 71 parents' observations of their child's mental health difficulties were explored. Parents sought out treatment because their children were experiencing significant distress. Data used were transcribed from baseline questionnaires and therapy summaries. Data analysis revealed three themes: emotion regulation difficulties, hypervigilance, and despair. The search for strategies and tailored interventions to help mitigate the potential harmful and long-term mental health impacts of the pandemic should be at the forefront of research and clinical practice.

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