Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
iScience ; 25(1): 103589, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882120

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the agent causing the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha), a WHO variant of concern first identified in the United Kingdom in late 2020, contains several mutations including P681H in the spike S1/S2 cleavage site, which is predicted to increase cleavage by furin, potentially impacting the viral cell entry. Here, we studied the role of the P681H mutation in B.1.1.7 cell entry. We performed assays using fluorogenic peptides mimicking the Wuhan-Hu-1 and B.1.1.7 S1/S2 sequence and observed no significant difference in furin cleavage. Functional assays using pseudoparticles harboring SARS-CoV-2 spikes and cell-to-cell fusion assays demonstrated no differences between Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.1.7, or a P681H point mutant. Likewise, we observed no differences in viral growth between USA-WA1/2020 and a B.1.1.7 isolate in cell culture. Our findings suggest that, although the B.1.1.7 P681H mutation may slightly increase S1/S2 cleavage, this does not significantly impact viral entry or cell-cell spread.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0226421, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846340

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we assessed the diagnostic sensitivity and determined the viral RNA load and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in paired respiratory (nasopharyngeal and anterior nares) and oral samples (saliva and sublingual swab). Samples were collected from 77 individuals of which 75 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and classified as symptomatic (n = 29), asymptomatic (n = 31), or postsymptomatic (n = 15). Specimens were collected at one time point from each individual, between day 1 and 23 after the initial COVID-19 diagnosis, and included self-collected saliva (S), or sublingual (SL) swab, and bilateral anterior nares (AN) swab, followed by health care provider collected nasopharyngeal (NP) swab. Sixty-three specimen sets were tested using five assay/platforms. The diagnostic sensitivity of each assay/platform and specimen type was determined. Of the 63 specimen sets, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 62 NP specimens, 52 AN specimens, 59 saliva specimens, and 31 SL specimens by at least one platform. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from 21 NP, 13 AN, 12 saliva, and one SL specimen out of 50 specimen sets. SARS-CoV-2 isolation was most successful up to 5 days after initial COVID-19 diagnosis using NP specimens from symptomatic patients (16 of 24 positives, 66.67%), followed by specimens from asymptomatic patients (5 of 17 positives, 29.41%), while it was not very successful with specimens from postsymptomatic patients. Benefits of self-collected saliva and AN specimens balance the loss of sensitivity relative to NP specimens. Therefore, saliva and AN specimens are acceptable alternatives for symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing or surveillance with increased sampling frequency of asymptomatic individuals. IMPORTANCE The dynamics of infection with SARS-CoV-2 have a significant impact on virus infectivity and in the diagnostic sensitivity of molecular and classic virus detection tests. In the present study we determined the diagnostic sensitivity of paired respiratory (nasopharyngeal and anterior nares swabs) and oral secretions (saliva and sublingual swab) and assessed infectious virus shedding patterns by symptomatic, asymptomatic, or postsymptomatic individuals. Understanding the diagnostic performance of these specimens and the patterns of infectious virus shedding in these bodily secretions provides critical information to control COVID-19, and may help to refine guidelines on isolation and quarantine of positive individuals and their close contacts identified through epidemiological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
4.
Nature ; 605(7909): 340-348, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764188

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains a global public health crisis. Although widespread vaccination campaigns are underway, their efficacy is reduced owing to emerging variants of concern1,2. Development of host-directed therapeutics and prophylactics could limit such resistance and offer urgently needed protection against variants of concern3,4. Attractive pharmacological targets to impede viral entry include type-II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) such as TMPRSS2; these proteases cleave the viral spike protein to expose the fusion peptide for cell entry, and thus have an essential role in the virus lifecycle5,6. Here we identify and characterize a small-molecule compound, N-0385, which exhibits low nanomolar potency and a selectivity index of higher than 106 in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells and in donor-derived colonoids7. In Calu-3 cells it inhibits the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta). Notably, in the K18-human ACE2 transgenic mouse model of severe COVID-19, we found that N-0385 affords a high level of prophylactic and therapeutic benefit after multiple administrations or even after a single administration. Together, our findings show that TTSP-mediated proteolytic maturation of the spike protein is critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo, and suggest that N-0385 provides an effective early treatment option against COVID-19 and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010197, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753207

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans, has a broad host range, and is able to infect domestic and wild animal species. Notably, white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus), the most widely distributed cervid species in the Americas, were shown to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in challenge studies and reported natural infection/exposure rates approaching 30-40% in free-ranging WTD in the U.S. Thus, understanding the infection and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in WTD is critical to prevent future zoonotic transmission to humans, at the human-WTD interface during hunting or venison farming, and for implementation of effective disease control measures. Here, we demonstrated that following intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 B.1 lineage, WTD fawns (~8-month-old) shed infectious virus up to day 5 post-inoculation (pi), with high viral loads shed in nasal and oral secretions. This resulted in efficient deer-to-deer transmission on day 3 pi. Consistent a with lack of infectious SARS-CoV-2 shedding after day 5 pi, no transmission was observed to contact animals added on days 6 and 9 pi. We have also investigated the tropism and sites of SARS-CoV-2 replication in adult WTD (3-4 years of age). Infectious virus was detected up to day 6 pi in nasal secretions, and from various respiratory-, lymphoid-, and central nervous system tissues, indicating broad tissue tropism and multiple sites of virus replication. The study provides important insights on the infection and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in WTD, a wild animal species that is highly susceptible to infection and with the potential to become a reservoir for the virus in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropism
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262868, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643287

ABSTRACT

A serological COVID-19 Multiplex Assay was developed and validated using serum samples from convalescent patients and those collected prior to the 2020 pandemic. After initial testing of multiple potential antigens, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were selected for the human COVID-19 Multiplex Assay. A comparison of synthesized and mammalian expressed RBD proteins revealed clear advantages of mammalian expression. Antibodies directed against NP strongly correlated with SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay titers (rsp = 0.726), while anti-RBD correlation was moderate (rsp = 0.436). Pan-Ig, IgG, IgA, and IgM against NP and RBD antigens were evaluated on the validation sample sets. Detection of NP and RBD specific IgG and IgA had outstanding performance (AUC > 0.90) for distinguishing patients from controls, but the dynamic range of the IgG assay was substantially greater. The COVID-19 Multiplex Assay was utilized to identify seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 in people living in a low-incidence community in Ithaca, NY. Samples were taken from a cohort of healthy volunteers (n = 332) in early June 2020. Only two volunteers had a positive result on a COVID-19 PCR test performed prior to serum sampling. Serological testing revealed an exposure rate of at least 1.2% (NP) or as high as 5.7% (RBD), higher than the measured incidence rate of 0.16% in the county at that time. This highly sensitive and quantitative assay can be used for monitoring community exposure rates and duration of immune response following both infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/chemistry , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
7.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0145521, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532961

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been linked to underlying health conditions and the age of affected individuals. Here, we assessed the effect of age on SARS-CoV-2 infection using a ferret model. For this, young (6-month-old) and aged (18- to 39-month-old) ferrets were inoculated intranasally with various doses of SARS-CoV-2. By using infectious virus shedding in respiratory secretions and seroconversion, we estimated that the infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 in aged animals is ∼32 PFU per animal, while in young animals it was estimated to be ∼100 PFU. We showed that viral replication in the upper respiratory tract and shedding in respiratory secretions is enhanced in aged ferrets compared to young animals. Similar to observations in humans, this was associated with higher transcription levels of two key viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in the upper respiratory tract of aged ferrets. IMPORTANCE In humans, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in various cells and tissues, and differential expression has been described in young and old people, with a higher level of expressing cells being detected in the nasal brushing of older people than young individuals. We described the same pattern occurring in ferrets, and we demonstrated that age affects susceptibility of ferrets to SARS-CoV-2. Aged animals were more likely to get infected when exposed to lower infectious dose of the virus than young animals, and the viral replication in the upper respiratory tract and shedding are enhanced in aged ferrets. Together, these results suggest that the higher infectivity and enhanced ability of SARS-CoV-2 to replicate in aged individuals is associated, at least in part, with transcription levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 at the sites of virus entry. The young and aged ferret model developed here may represent a great platform to assess age-related differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics and replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Organ Specificity , RNA, Viral , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3171-3173, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528797

ABSTRACT

We report infection of 3 Malayan tigers with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant at a zoologic park in Virginia, USA. All tigers exhibited respiratory signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings show that tigers are susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tigers , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virginia/epidemiology
9.
Comp Med ; 71(5): 369-382, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498361

ABSTRACT

Since the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020, millions of people have contracted SARS-CoV-2 and died from the infection. Several domestic and wild species have contracted the disease as well. From the beginning, scientists have been working to develop vaccines and establish therapies that can prevent disease development and improve the clinical outcome in infected people. To understand various aspects of viral pathogenesis and infection dynamics and to support preclinical evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics, a diverse number of animal species have been evaluated for use as models of the disease and infection in humans. Here, we discuss natural SARS-CoV-2 infection of domestic and captive wild animals, as well as the susceptibility of several species to experimental infection with this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335235

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has claimed millions of human lives worldwide since the emergence of the zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019. Notably, most severe and fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans have been associated with underlying clinical conditions, including diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. Here, we describe a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in a domestic cat (Felis catus) that presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a chronic heart condition that has been described as a comorbidity of COVID-19 in humans and that is prevalent in domestic cats. The lung and heart of the affected cat presented clear evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication, with histological lesions similar to those observed in humans with COVID-19 with high infectious viral loads being recovered from these organs. The study highlights the potential impact of comorbidities on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and provides important information that may contribute to the development of a feline model with the potential to recapitulate the clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cats , Heart/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
12.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335232

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the susceptibility of animals and their potential to act as reservoirs or intermediate hosts for the virus has been of significant interest. Pigs are susceptible to multiple coronaviruses and have been used as an animal model for other human infectious diseases. Research groups have experimentally challenged swine with human SARS-CoV-2 isolates with results suggesting limited to no viral replication. For this study, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate obtained from a tiger which is identical to human SARS-CoV-2 isolates detected in New York City and contains the D614G S mutation was utilized for inoculation. Pigs were challenged via intravenous, intratracheal, or intranasal routes of inoculation (n = 4/route). No pigs developed clinical signs, but at least one pig in each group had one or more PCR positive nasal/oral swabs or rectal swabs after inoculation. All pigs in the intravenous group developed a transient neutralizing antibody titer, but only three other challenged pigs developed titers greater than 1:8. No gross or histologic changes were observed in tissue samples collected at necropsy. In addition, no PCR positive samples were positive by virus isolation. Inoculated animals were unable to transmit virus to naïve contact animals. The data from this experiment as well as from other laboratories supports that swine are not likely to play a role in the epidemiology and spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mouth/virology , Nose/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Swine , Trachea/virology , Virus Replication
13.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2551-2561, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309044

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify and validate a sensitive, high-throughput, and cost-effective SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR assay to be used as a surveillance and diagnostic tool for SARS-CoV-2 in a university surveillance program. We conducted a side-by-side clinical evaluation of a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 multiplex assay (EZ-SARS-CoV-2 Real-Time RT-PCR) with the commercial TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit, which has an Emergency Use Authorization from the FDA. The EZ-SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR incorporates two assays targeting the SARS-CoV-2 N gene, an internal control targeting the human RNase P gene, and a PCR inhibition control in a single reaction. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and anterior nares (AN) swabs were tested as individuals and pools with both assays and in the ABI 7500 Fast and the QuantStudio 5 detection platforms. The analytical sensitivity of the EZ-SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay was 250 copies/ml or approximately 1.75 genome copy equivalents per reaction. The clinical performance of the EZ-SARS-CoV-2 assay was evaluated using NP and AN samples tested in other laboratories. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay ranged between 94 and 96% across the detection platforms, and the diagnostic specificity was 94.06%. The positive predictive value was 94%, and the negative predictive value ranged from 94 to 96%. Pooling five NP or AN specimens yielded 93% diagnostic sensitivity. The overall agreement between these SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays was high, supported by a Cohen's kappa value of 0.93. The EZ-SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay performance attributes of high sensitivity and specificity with AN sample matrix and pooled upper respiratory samples support its use in a high-throughput surveillance testing program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Epidemiological Monitoring , Gene Expression , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load
14.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143614

ABSTRACT

The host range of SARS-CoV-2 and the susceptibility of animal species to the virus are topics of great interest to the international scientific community. The angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein is the major receptor for the virus, and sequence and structural analysis of the protein has been performed to determine its cross-species conservation. Based on these analyses, cattle have been implicated as a potential susceptible species to SARS-CoV-2 and have been reported to have increased ACE2 receptor distribution in the liver and kidney, and lower levels in the lungs. The goal of the current study was to determine the susceptibility of cattle to SARS-CoV-2 utilizing inoculation routes that facilitated exposure to tissues with increased ACE2 receptor distribution. For this, colostrum-deprived calves approximately 6 weeks of age were inoculated via the intratracheal or intravenous routes. Nasal and rectal swab samples, as well as blood and urine samples, were collected over the course of the study to evaluate viral shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. Pyrexia was used as the primary criteria for euthanasia and tissue samples were collected during necropsy. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in only two nasal swab samples collected on days 3 and 10 post-inoculation (pi) in two calves; one calf in the intratracheal group and the other calf in the intravenous group, respectively. Additionally, the calf in the intratracheal group that was positive on the nasal swab on day 3 pi also had a positive tracheobronchial lymph node on day 9 pi. Viral nucleic acid load on these samples, based on PCR cycle threshold values, were low and infectious virus was not recovered from the samples. These results suggest that there was no productive replication of SARS-CoV-2 in calves following intratracheal and intravenous inoculation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cattle , Disease Models, Animal , Host Specificity , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
15.
J Virol ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127539

ABSTRACT

The origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing the global coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, remains a mystery. Current evidence suggests a likely spillover into humans from an animal reservoir. Understanding the host range and identifying animal species that are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection may help to elucidate the origin of the virus and the mechanisms underlying cross-species transmission to humans. Here we demonstrated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), an animal species in which the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) - the SARS-CoV-2 receptor - shares a high degree of similarity to humans, are highly susceptible to infection. Intranasal inoculation of deer fawns with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in established subclinical viral infection and shedding of infectious virus in nasal secretions. Notably, infected animals transmitted the virus to non-inoculated contact deer. Viral RNA was detected in multiple tissues 21 days post-inoculation (pi). All inoculated and indirect contact animals seroconverted and developed neutralizing antibodies as early as day 7 pi. The work provides important insights into the animal host range of SARS-CoV-2 and identifies white-tailed deer as a susceptible wild animal species to the virus.IMPORTANCEGiven the presumed zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, the human-animal-environment interface of COVID-19 pandemic is an area of great scientific and public- and animal-health interest. Identification of animal species that are susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate the potential origin of the virus, identify potential reservoirs or intermediate hosts, and define the mechanisms underlying cross-species transmission to humans. Additionally, it may also provide information and help to prevent potential reverse zoonosis that could lead to the establishment of a new wildlife hosts. Our data show that upon intranasal inoculation, white-tailed deer became subclinically infected and shed infectious SARS-CoV-2 in nasal secretions and feces. Importantly, indirect contact animals were infected and shed infectious virus, indicating efficient SARS-CoV-2 transmission from inoculated animals. These findings support the inclusion of wild cervid species in investigations conducted to assess potential reservoirs or sources of SARS-CoV-2 of infection.

16.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(9)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119282

ABSTRACT

Here, we report the identification and coding-complete genome sequence of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain (NYI.B1-7.01-21) obtained from a patient with symptoms of COVID-19 who had a recent travel history to the United Kingdom. The sample was tested by the Cayuga Health Systems laboratory as part of New York State's travel testing guidance and was sequenced at Cornell University after testing positive.

17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 733-744, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041161

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as the cause of a global pandemic in 2019-2020. In March 2020, New York City became the epicenter in the United States for the pandemic. On 27 March 2020, a Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) at the Bronx Zoo in New York City developed a cough and wheezing with subsequent inappetence. Over the next week, an additional Malayan tiger and two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the same building and three lions (Panthera leo krugeri) in a separate building also became ill. The index case was anesthetized for diagnostic workup. Physical examination and bloodwork results were unremarkable. Thoracic radiography and ultrasonography revealed a bronchial pattern with peribronchial cuffing and mild lung consolidation with alveolar-interstitial syndrome, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified by real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) on oropharyngeal and nasal swabs and tracheal wash fluid. Cytologic examination of tracheal wash fluid revealed necrosis, and viral RNA was detected in necrotic cells by in situ hybridization, confirming virus-associated tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from the tracheal wash fluid of the index case, as well as the feces from one Amur tiger and one lion. Fecal viral RNA shedding was confirmed in all seven clinical cases and an asymptomatic Amur tiger. Respiratory signs abated within 1-5 days for most animals, although they persisted intermittently for 16 days in the index case. Fecal RNA shedding persisted for as long as 35 days beyond cessation of respiratory signs. This case series describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of tigers and lions infected with SARS-CoV-2 and describes the duration of viral RNA fecal shedding in these cases. This report documents the first known natural transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to nondomestic felids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Feces/virology , Lions/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tigers/virology , Animals , Animals, Zoo , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification , New York City/epidemiology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/isolation & purification
18.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 74: 101581, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926806

ABSTRACT

In this study, primary and immortalized bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs) were characterized for the expression of surface carbohydrate moieties. Primary BIEC-c4 cells showed staining greater than 90 % for 16 lectins but less than 50 % staining for four lectins. Immortalized BIECs showed significantly different lectin binding profile for few lectins compared to BIEC-c4 cells. BIEC-c4 cells were studied for infectivity to E. coli, Salmonella enterica, bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Bovine strain E. coli B41 adhered to BIEC-c4 cells and Salmonella strains S. Dublin and S. Mbandaka showed strong cell invasion. BIEC-c4 cells were susceptible to bovine rotavirus. LPS stimulation upregulated IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 expression and Poly I:C upregulated TLR 8 and TLR 9 expression. This study provides important knowledge on the glycoconjugate expression profile of primary and immortalized BIECs and infectivity and immune responses of primary BIECs to bacterial and viral pathogens or ligands.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Lectins/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral , Escherichia coli , Immunity , Interleukins/immunology , Rotavirus , Salmonella enterica
19.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868276

ABSTRACT

Despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed millions. Zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which presumably originated from an animal reservoir, has killed more than half a million people around the world and cases continue to rise. In March 2020, New York City was a global epicenter for SARS-CoV-2 infections. During this time, four tigers and three lions at the Bronx Zoo, NY, developed mild, abnormal respiratory signs. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory secretions and/or feces from all seven animals, live virus in three, and colocalized viral RNA with cellular damage in one. We produced nine whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the animals and keepers and identified different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in the tigers and lions. Epidemiologic and genomic data indicated human-to-tiger transmission. These were the first confirmed cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 animal infections in the United States and the first in nondomestic species in the world. We highlight disease transmission at a nontraditional interface and provide information that contributes to understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission across species.IMPORTANCE The human-animal-environment interface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important aspect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that requires robust One Health-based investigations. Despite this, few reports describe natural infections in animals or directly link them to human infections using genomic data. In the present study, we describe the first cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in tigers and lions in the United States and provide epidemiological and genetic evidence for human-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our data show that tigers and lions were infected with different genotypes of SARS-CoV-2, indicating two independent transmission events to the animals. Importantly, infected animals shed infectious virus in respiratory secretions and feces. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important in both animal and human health.


Subject(s)
Animals, Zoo/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Panthera/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , One Health , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
20.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(22)2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401519

ABSTRACT

This report describes the identification and characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a Malayan tiger in a U.S. zoo.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL