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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488482

ABSTRACT

mRNA and Adenovirus vaccines for COVID-19 are used to induce humoral and cell-mediated immunity, with the aim to generate both SARS-CoV-2 B and T memory cells. In present study, we described a simple assay to detect and quantify Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses induced by vaccination in healthy donors and in subjects with B cell compart impairment, in which antibody response is absent due to primary immunodeficiencies or CD20 depleting therapy. We detect and quantified memory T cell immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 evocated by vaccination in both groups, irrespective to the humoral response. Furthermore, we identified TNF-α as the main cytokine produced by T memory cells, after antigen-specific stimulation in vitro, that could be considered, other than IFN-γ, an additional biomarker of induction of T memory cells upon vaccination. Further studies on the vaccine-induced T cell responses could be crucial, not only in healthy people but also in immunocompromised subjects, where antigen specific T cells responses play a protective role against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273521

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection dysregulates the immune system by lymphopenia of B cells, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and cytotoxic cells such as CD8, γδ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Despite many studies being conducted to better understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the immune system, many mechanisms still remain unclear, hindering the development of novel therapeutic approaches and strategies to improve the host's immune defense. This mini-review summarizes the findings on the role of γδ T cells in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing an overview of the excellent anti-viral therapeutic potential of γδ T cells, that had not yet been exploited in depth.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243964

ABSTRACT

The current challenge worldwide is the administration of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Even if rarely, severe vascular adverse reactions temporally related to vaccine administration have induced diffidence in the population at large. In particular, researchers worldwide are focusing on the so-called "thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination". This study aims to establish a practical workflow to define the relationship between adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and COVID-19 vaccination, following the basic framework of the World Health Organization (WHO). Post-mortem investigation plays a pivotal role to support this causality relationship when death occurs. To demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of the proposed workflow, we applied it to two exemplificative cases of suspected AEFI following COVID-19 vaccination. Based on the proposed model, we took into consideration any possible causality relationship between COVID-19 vaccine administration and AEFI. This led us to conclude that vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 may cause the rare development of immune thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4), which clinically mimics heparin-induced autoimmune thrombocytopenia. We suggest the adoption of the proposed methodology in order to confirm or rule out a causal relationship between vaccination and the occurrence of AEFI.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624054

ABSTRACT

Viruses can generate molecular mimicry phenomena within their hosts. Why shouldsevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) not be considered one of these?Information in this short review suggests that it might be so and, thus, encourages research aimingat testing this possibility. We propose, as a working hypothesis, that the virus induces antibodiesand that some of them crossreact with host's antigens, thus eliciting autoimmune phenomena withdevasting consequences in various tissues and organs. If confirmed, by in vitro and in vivo tests,this could drive researchers to find effective treatments against the virus.

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