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1.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989494

ABSTRACT

The use of e-commerce has exploded due to the impact of COVID-19. People with no experience in e-commerce prior to the COVID-19 pandemic began online shopping for their safety following the pandemic outbreak. As such, these newly joined customers have played a vital role in the rapid development of e-commerce. Maintaining these customers and increasing their repurchase intention is a core issue for e-commerce platform companies. Thus, using new e-commerce users as the participants, this study investigated the structural relationship between brand experience, brand emotional factors (brand attachment and brand love), brand loyalty, and repurchase intention with brand love as the mediator. Research on the multidimensional brand experience (i.e., sensory, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) from Chinese customers’ perspective is still lacking, and our study attempts to fill this gap. A structured questionnaire and hypotheses were designed based on studies and survey of 310 respondents from China in this study. The study results show that, first, the four dimensions of brand experience have a significant positive correlation with brand emotion, with brand cognitive experience having the greatest impact on consumer brand emotion. Second, the influence of brand emotion on brand loyalty is positive and significant, and brand attachment has a stronger influence than brand love on brand loyalty. In addition, brand loyalty has a positive effect on repurchase intention. Finally, brand love plays a mediating role on the relationship between brand attachment and brand loyalty. To enhance customers’ brand attachment and love for e-commerce platforms, companies must enhance customers’ interest and curiosity in their products. And companies will improve their services to customers by introducing artificial intelligence algorithms to increase customers’ repurchase intention, which will ultimately increasing their profitability. This study contributes to the development of e-commerce platform companies.

2.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883177

ABSTRACT

Does COVID-19 affect people of all classes equally? In the current research, we focus on the social issue of risk inequality during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a nationwide survey conducted in China (N = 1,137), we predicted and found that compared to higher-class individuals, lower-class participants reported a stronger decline in self-rated health as well as economic well-being due to the COVID-19 outbreak. At the same time, we examined participants' beliefs regarding the distribution of risks. The results demonstrated that although lower-class individuals were facing higher risks, they expressed lesser belief in such a risk inequality than their higher-class counterparts. This tendency was partly mediated by their stronger endorsement of system-justifying beliefs. The findings provide novel evidence of the misperception of risk inequality among the disadvantaged in the context of COVID-19. Implications for science and policy are discussed.

3.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 823-837, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855210

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic motivated people to stay at home to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and community transmission, but limited research has investigated the behavioral mechanisms underlying home quarantine. Methods: Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explored the mediating role of intention toward home quarantine and the moderating role of nationality among attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. A total of 827 college students from the United States and China were recruited to complete an online survey. Results: The results of structural equation modeling showed that antecedents (ie, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) could predict actual home-quarantine behavior through the role of intention. Notably, the relation between both attitude and intention and perceived behavioral control and intention were moderated by nationality. Specifically, attitude was a stronger predictor of intention for American participants than for Chinese participants; however, perceived behavioral control was a stronger predictor of intention for Chinese participants. Conclusion: These findings reveal the internal mechanism of home-quarantine behavior and the heterogeneous explanations attributed to cultural diversity during the pandemic, which not only expands the application of TPB but also provides a reference for infectious disease mitigation in the field of public health policy.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820241

ABSTRACT

Conspiracy theories often emerge during public health crises, and can provide some explanation for the causes behind the crises. However, the prevalence of conspiracy theories also poses a serious threat to public health order and hinders the implementation of disease prevention and control measures. No studies have examined the role of multiple risk perceptions in the formation of beliefs in conspiracy theories from a cognitive perspective in the context of the epidemic. In this cross-sectional study, participants filled in an online survey in order to investigate the relationship between epidemic severity and beliefs in conspiracy theories and the mediating role of risk perception in this relationship. The results showed that COVID-19 epidemic severity positively predicted beliefs in both in- and out-group conspiracy theories. Risk perception mediated the positive relationship between COVID-19 epidemic severity and belief in in-group conspiracy theories. These results suggest that in a major public health crisis event: (1) residents at the epicenter may be more prone to believing in both in- and out-group conspiracy theories; and (2) beliefs in in- and out-group conspiracy theories may have different psychological mechanisms. Therefore, conspiracy theories about public health incidents, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, should be classified and treated by policy stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 772870, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792928

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affects all population segments and is especially detrimental to university students because social interaction is critical for a rewarding campus life and valuable learning experiences. In particular, with the suspension of in-person activities and the adoption of virtual teaching modalities, university students face drastic changes in their physical activities, academic careers, and mental health. Our study applies a machine learning approach to explore the gender differences among U.S. university students in response to the global pandemic. Leveraging a proprietary survey dataset collected from 322 U.S. university students, we employ association rule mining (ARM) techniques to identify and compare psychological, cognitive, and behavioral patterns among male and female participants. To formulate our task under the conventional ARM framework, we model each unique question-answer pair of the survey questionnaire as a market basket item. Consequently, each participant's survey report is analogous to a customer's transaction on a collection of items. Our findings suggest that significant differences exist between the two gender groups in psychological distress and coping strategies. In addition, the two groups exhibit minor differences in cognitive patterns and consistent preventive behaviors. The identified gender differences could help professional institutions to facilitate customized advising or counseling for males and females in periods of unprecedented challenges.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699174

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused unprecedented disruptions to regular university operations worldwide. Dealing with 100% virtual classrooms and suspension of essential in-person activities resulted in significant stress and anxiety for students coping with isolation, fear, and uncertainties in their academic careers. In this study, we applied a machine learning approach to identify distinct coping patterns between graduate and undergraduate students when facing these challenges. We based our study on a large proprietary dataset collected from 517 students in US professional institutions during an early peak of the pandemic. In particular, we cast our problem under the association rule mining (ARM) framework by introducing a new method to transform survey data into market basket items and customer transactions in which students' behavioral patterns were analogous to customer purchase patterns. Our experimental results suggested that graduate and undergraduate students adopted different ways of coping that could be attributed to their different maturity levels and lifestyles. Our findings can further serve as a focus of attention (FOA) tool to facilitate customized advising or counseling to address the unique challenges associated with each group that may warrant differentiated interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324235

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a world-wide health crisis. Limited information is available regarding which patients will experience more severe disease symptoms. We evaluated hospitalized patients who were initially diagnosed with moderate COVID-19 for clinical parameters and radiological feature that showed an association with progression to severe/critical symptoms. Methods: : This study, a retrospective single-center study at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, enrolled 243 patients with confirmed COVID­19 pneumonia. Forty of these patients progressed from moderate to severe/critical symptoms during follow up. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between moderate- and severe/critical-type symptoms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors associated with symptom progression. Results: : Patients with severe/critical symptoms were older (p<0.001) and more often male (p=0.046). A combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and high maximum chest computed tomography (CT) score was associated with disease progression. Maximum CT score (>11) had the greatest predictive value for disease progression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.861 ( 95% confidence interval: 0.811-0.902). Conclusions: : Maximum CT score and COPD were associated with patient deterioration. Maximum CT score (>11) was associated with severe illness.

8.
Anal Soc Issues Public Policy ; 22(1): 183-197, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685209

ABSTRACT

Individuals increase their support for social systems in response to the threat, panic, and uncertainty that characterized the COVID-19 pandemic. This could be because a powerful social system can compensate for a lack of control at the individual level. However, the levels of public support for national versus local systems could be different in China. Two studies investigate whether people support the national more strongly than the local system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study 1 analyzed data of 3593 participants from China; the results showed that participants reported higher levels of support for the national system than the local. In Study 2, we further tested a possible moderator for it. With a sample of 275 participants, we found that the difference between public support for national and local systems in China was based on the perceived higher response efficacy with the national government. Implications for research on system justification and governmental pandemic responses were discussed.

9.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 118: 91-100, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665502

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, various lockdown strategies restrained global economic growth bringing a significant decline in maritime transportation. However, the previous studies have not adequately recognized the specific impacts of COVID-19 on maritime transportation. In this study, a series of analyses of the Baltic Dry Index (BDI), the China Coastal Bulk Freight Index (CCBFI) and of container throughputs with and without the impact of COVID-19 were carried out to assess changing trends in dry bulk and container transportation. The results show that global dry bulk transportation was largely affected by lockdown policies in the second month during COVID-19, and BDI presented a year-on-year decrease of approximately 35.5% from 2019 to 2020. The CCBFI showed an upward trend in the second month during COVID-19, one month ahead of the BDI. The container throughputs at Shanghai Port, the Ports of Hong Kong, the Ports of Singapore and the Ports of Los Angeles from 2019 to 2020 presented the largest year-on-year drops of approximately 19.6%, 7.1%, 10.6% and 30.9%, respectively. In addition, the authors developed exponential smoothing models of BDI, CCBFI, and container transportation, and calculated the percentage prediction error between the observed and predicted values to examine the impact of exogenous effects on the shipping industry due to the outbreak of COVID-19. The results are consistent with the conclusions obtained from the comparison of BDI, CCBFI, and container transportation during the same period in 2020 and 2019. Finally, on the basis of the findings, smart shipping and special support policies are proposed to reduce the negative impacts of COVID-19.

10.
School Psychology International ; 42(6):569-589, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1566456

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this paper is to illustrate recruitment efforts, strategies, and challenges in the process of training bilingual school psychologists to serve diverse schools. First, we address the acute and chronic shortage of bilingual school psychologists in the United States, particularly in urban schools where student populations are increasingly diverse. Then we provide a review of strategies and efforts to recruit and retain bilingual graduate-level learners in one school psychology program in an urban university. Quantitative data regarding recruitment and retention efforts are discussed. We identify challenges and future directions to increase diversity in the field of school psychology.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 754838, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This retrospective observational study examined patients who experienced radiotherapy (RT) interruption during the Wuhan lockdown for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of all patients whose RT was interrupted during the Wuhan lockdown from January 23 to April 8, 2020 were collected. Patient-, cancer-, and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed, along with interruption time, disease progression type, and survival status. The methods employed in order to compensate for RT interruption were also described. RESULTS: There were altogether 129 cancer patients whose RT was interrupted. Nineteen (14.7%) patients experienced a total interruption time of at most 7 days; the interruption time was 8-14 days for 27 (20.9%) patients, and 15 or more days for 47 (36.4%) patients. The remaining 36 (27.9%) patients did not come back to our hospital for further RT. We first describe our experience with re-immobilization and/or re-planning (n = 17) as well as dose compensation/adjustment. Of the 40 definitive radiotherapy patients, 37 had squamous cell carcinoma of nasopharyngeal, lung, or cervical origin. Most patients (85/93, 91.4%) were followed up for more than one year. Among the 40 patients who received definitive radiotherapy, nine patients experienced disease progression and five patients died. Three of the seven (42.9%) patients who did not finish radiotherapy after interruption died, as compared to only two of the 33 (6.1%) patients who completed radiotherapy. EQD2 (equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions) at the time point of RT interruption was calculated. Five of the six patients (83.3%) who received EQD2 ≤10 Gy suffered from disease progression, compared with four of the 34 (11.8%) patients who received EQD2 >10 Gy. For the seven definitive radiotherapy cases who did not finish radiotherapy, three received systemic anti-cancer treatments and three died (all of whom did not receive further systemic therapies). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the longest follow-up for the outcomes of RT interruption during COVID-19 pandemic to date. It cannot imply causation but implies that completing RT is important, along with the utility of having patients remain on systemic therapies if RT is to be interrupted.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551593

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore cross-country differences in the characteristics and determinations of self-other risk perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We distinguished perceived risk to self from perceived risk to others and subdivided risk perceptions into three levels: personal, group, and societal. We focused on the differential impact of multiple communication channels (i.e., interpersonal communication, traditional media exposure, and new media exposure) on risk perceptions at the three levels. A sample of 790 college students completed self-report online questionnaires from May to June 2020, including 498 in China and 292 in the United States. The results showed an "ascending pattern," revealing that participants perceived higher levels of risk to others than to themselves. In addition, U.S. college students perceived higher risks of COVID-19 than Chinese college students at all levels. As for the relations between communication and risk perceptions, the results revealed that interpersonal communication and traditional media exposure were more effective with Chinese participants, whereas new media exposure was more effective with U.S. participants. Specifically, interpersonal communication was positively associated with risk perceptions at three levels, and the magnitude of the effect was higher in the Chinese group than in the U.S. group. Traditional media exposure increased societal risk perception only for Chinese college students, and new media exposure increased societal risk perception only for U.S. college students. Our findings provide theoretical implications for the characteristics and forming mechanisms of risk perceptions and also provide practical implications for policymakers in the two countries to implement effective measures to foster individuals' risk perceptions in relation to preventive behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523987

ABSTRACT

The behavioral immune system (BIS) theory suggests that pathogen avoidance motives relate to greater behavioral avoidance against social interactions that pose potential risks of pathogen transmission. Based on the BIS theory, pathogen avoidance motives would decrease people's helping behavior towards others. However, would pathogen avoidance motives decrease all types of helping behavior towards others during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (i.e., COVID-19) pandemic indiscriminately? In the present study, we conducted a within-subjects design to compare people's helping intentions toward voluntary work with and without social contact. Specifically, participants (N = 1562) completed an online survey at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in China measuring pathogen disgust sensitivity, state anxiety, and intentions to perform volunteer work with and without social contact. Results revealed that pathogen disgust sensitivity negatively predicted intentions to perform voluntary work with social contact yet had no influence on intentions to perform socially distanced voluntary work. Moreover, the effect of pathogen disgust sensitivity on socially distanced volunteering preference was mediated by the state anxiety people experienced during the pandemic. The findings have implications for understanding people's helping behavior during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750487

ABSTRACT

With the continuing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic coupled with phased reopening, it is critical to identify risk factors associated with susceptibility and severity of disease in a diverse population to help shape government policies, guide clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research. In this retrospective case-control study, we used de-identified electronic health records (EHR) from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Health System between March 9th, 2020 and June 14th, 2020 to identify risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility (severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR test positive), inpatient admission, and severe outcomes (treatment in an intensive care unit or intubation). Of the 26,602 individuals tested by PCR for SARS-CoV-2, 992 were COVID-19 positive (3.7% of Tested), 220 were admitted in the hospital (22% of COVID-19 positive), and 77 had a severe outcome (35% of Inpatient). Consistent with previous studies, males and individuals older than 65 years old had increased risk of inpatient admission. Notably, individuals self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino constituted an increasing percentage of COVID-19 patients as disease severity escalated, comprising 24% of those testing positive, but 40% of those with a severe outcome, a disparity that remained after correcting for medical co-morbidities. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and renal disease were premorbid risk factors present before SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing associated with COVID-19 susceptibility. Less well-established risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility included pre-existing dementia (odds ratio (OR) 5.2 [3.2-8.3], p=2.6 x 10-10), mental health conditions (depression OR 2.1 [1.6-2.8], p=1.1 x 10-6) and vitamin D deficiency (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.2], p=5.7 x 10-6). Renal diseases including end-stage renal disease and anemia due to chronic renal disease were the predominant premorbid risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission. Other less established risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission included previous renal transplant (OR 9.7 [2.8-39], p=3.2x10-4) and disorders of the immune system (OR 6.0 [2.3, 16], p=2.7x10-4). Prior use of oral steroid medications was associated with decreased COVID-19 positive testing risk (OR 0.61 [0.45, 0.81], p=4.3x10-4), but increased inpatient admission risk (OR 4.5 [2.3, 8.9], p=1.8x10-5). We did not observe that prior use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers increased the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, being admitted to the hospital, or having a severe outcome. This study involving direct EHR extraction identified known and less well-established demographics, and prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility and inpatient admission. Knowledge of these risk factors including marked ethnic disparities observed in disease severity should guide government policies, identify at-risk populations, inform clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research.

15.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 12(11): 1838-1844, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507014

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has stimulated the search for effective drugs for its prevention and treatment. Natural products are an important source for new drug discovery. Here, we report that, NK007(S,R), a tylophorine malate, displays high antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 with an EC50 0.03 µM in vitro, which is substantially lower than that of remdesivir (EC50: 0.8 µM in vitro), the only authorized drug to date. The histopathological research revealed that NK007(S,R) (5 mg/kg/dose) displayed a protection effect in lung injury induced by SARS-CoV-2, which is better than remdesivir (25 mg/kg/dose). We also prepared two nanosized preparations of NK007(S,R), which also showed good efficacy (EC50: NP-NK007, 0.007 µM in vitro; LP-NK007, 0.014 µM in vitro). Our findings suggest that tylophora alkaloids, isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Cynanchum komarovii AL, offer a new skeleton for the development of anticoronavirus drug candidate.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470881

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to understand the impact of different coping methods endorsed by Chinese college students during COVID-19 through the examination of the mediating role of perceived stress. We recruited a total of 492 undergraduate students to complete an online survey from May to June 2020. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that perceived stress was a significant mediator in the association between different coping styles and psychological distress. Three coping styles, including problem-focused, adaptive emotion-focused, and maladaptive emotion-focused coping styles were all significantly correlated with psychological distress. Perceived stress significantly mediated the association between the three coping styles and psychological distress. The results indicated a full mediation model in which problem-focused coping and adaptive emotion-focused coping affected psychological distress entirely through the mediation of perceived stress. Maladaptive emotion-focused coping positively predicted perceived stress, which in turn positively predicted psychological distress through a partial mediation model. We discuss the implications of these findings and offer suggestions for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354964

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 has brought upon unprecedented challenges to nearly all people around the globe. Yet, people may differ in their risks of social, economic, and health well-being. In this research, we take a gender-difference approach to examine whether and why women suffered greater emotional and life distress than men at the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Using a large nationwide Chinese sample, we found that compared to men, women reported higher levels of anxiety and fear, as well as greater life disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, that women suffered more was partly explained by their higher level of pathogen disgust sensitivity. Our findings highlight the important consequences of gender differences in response to the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic and suggest that policymakers pay more attention to gender inequalities regarding COVID-19 responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disgust , Anxiety/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3281-3287, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281833

ABSTRACT

Currently, many companies around the world are actively developing COVID-19 vaccines. Fourteen vaccines with reliable safety and effectiveness are being successfully distributed to the public. However, there is no specific clinical trial data of the vaccines currently on the market on cancer patients at various stages, so the safety and effectiveness on cancer patients is unknown. This mini-review aims to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients, and the urgent need of COVID-19 vaccines for cancer patients. In this review, we described the current status of the COVID-19 vaccine usages in cancer patients, as well as discussed potential problems in the use of vaccine. In addition, we included an original survey of the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines in 209 cancer patients and their family members. COVID-19 vaccine can provide cancer patients with social and medical benefits; therefore, clinical trials of vaccines on cancer patients are in great need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Journal of Financial Economics ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1272533

ABSTRACT

We document issuance overpricing of corporate debt securities in China, which is robust across subsamples with different credit ratings, maturities, and issuers. This phenomenon contrasts with underpricing of equity and debt securities in Western countries and reflects China's distinct institutional environment. The average overpricing dropped from 7.44 basis points to 2.41 basis points after the government prohibited underwriters from using rebates in issuances in October 2017. By analyzing overpricing before and after the rebate ban and across different issuers and underwriters, we uncover two channels for underwriters, who compete for future underwriting business, to drive up overpricing: rebates and self-purchases.

20.
Natural Product Research and Development ; 32(7):1087-1098, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1229500

ABSTRACT

This study aims to predict potential targets and molecular mechanisms of herbal pair Schizonepetae Herba(SH) and Saposhnikoviae Radix(SR) against coronavirus pneumonia based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.At first, the active compounds and potential targets of SH and SR were collected from TCMSP,ETCM,BATMAN-TCM, and the related targets of coronavirus pneumonia were collected from GeneCards,OMIM, NCBI Gene. And then, PPI of common targets was analyzed by STRING,GO and KEGG enrichment analysis was performed by DAVID.At last, Autodock was used for molecular docking of potential pharmacodynamic compounds and key targets.A total of 28 active compounds and 56 key targets were collected from SH and SR.GO enrichment analysis collected 176 biological processes,47 molecular functions and 36 cell compounds (P < 0.05). The results of molecular docking showed that the binding energy of potential pharmacological compounds with key targets, angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) and COVID-19 main protease was lower than -5 kcal/mol. This study demonstrated the potential pharmacodynamic compounds and targets of SH and SR on treatment of coronavirus pneumonia, which laid a foundation for the development and follow-up research of SH and SR.

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