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1.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1233-1244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434113

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigenic sites will inform the development of improved therapeutics. We determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies-AZD8895 and AZD1061-which form the basis of the investigational antibody cocktail AZD7442, in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to define the genetic and structural basis of neutralization. AZD8895 forms an 'aromatic cage' at the heavy/light chain interface using germ line-encoded residues in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) 2 and 3 of the heavy chain and CDRs 1 and 3 of the light chain. These structural features explain why highly similar antibodies (public clonotypes) have been isolated from multiple individuals. AZD1061 has an unusually long LCDR1; the HCDR3 makes interactions with the opposite face of the RBD from that of AZD8895. Using deep mutational scanning and neutralization escape selection experiments, we comprehensively mapped the crucial binding residues of both antibodies and identified positions of concern with regards to virus escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. Both AZD8895 and AZD1061 have strong neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern with antigenic substitutions in the RBD. We conclude that germ line-encoded antibody features enable recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and demonstrate the utility of the cocktail AZD7442 in neutralizing emerging variant viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Variation , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(1): 44-57.e9, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385265

ABSTRACT

Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) are being developed as therapeutics and are a major contributor to neutralizing antibody responses elicited by infection. Here, we describe a deep mutational scanning method to map how all amino-acid mutations in the RBD affect antibody binding and apply this method to 10 human monoclonal antibodies. The escape mutations cluster on several surfaces of the RBD that broadly correspond to structurally defined antibody epitopes. However, even antibodies targeting the same surface often have distinct escape mutations. The complete escape maps predict which mutations are selected during viral growth in the presence of single antibodies. They further enable the design of escape-resistant antibody cocktails-including cocktails of antibodies that compete for binding to the same RBD surface but have different escape mutations. Therefore, complete escape-mutation maps enable rational design of antibody therapeutics and assessment of the antigenic consequences of viral evolution.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Library , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
3.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389513

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters cells using its Spike protein, which is also the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, assays to measure how antibodies and sera affect Spike-mediated viral infection are important for studying immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2 is a biosafety-level-3 virus, one way to simplify such assays is to pseudotype biosafety-level-2 viral particles with Spike. Such pseudotyping has now been described for single-cycle lentiviral, retroviral, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles, but the reagents and protocols are not widely available. Here, we detailed how to effectively pseudotype lentiviral particles with SARS-CoV-2 Spike and infect 293T cells engineered to express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2. We also made all the key experimental reagents available in the BEI Resources repository of ATCC and the NIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated how these pseudotyped lentiviral particles could be used to measure the neutralizing activity of human sera or plasma against SARS-CoV-2 in convenient luciferase-based assays, thereby providing a valuable complement to ELISA-based methods that measure antibody binding rather than neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Containment of Biohazards , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lentivirus , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma/immunology
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(4): 100255, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343397

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies and antibody cocktails are a promising therapeutic and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, ongoing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can render monoclonal antibodies ineffective. Here, we completely map all of the mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) that escape binding by a leading monoclonal antibody, LY-CoV555, and its cocktail combination with LY-CoV016. Individual mutations that escape binding by each antibody are combined in the circulating B.1.351 and P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineages (E484K escapes LY-CoV555, K417N/T escapes LY-CoV016). In addition, the L452R mutation in the B.1.429 lineage escapes LY-CoV555. Furthermore, we identify single amino acid changes that escape the combined LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016 cocktail. We suggest that future efforts diversify the epitopes targeted by antibodies and antibody cocktails to make them more resilient to the antigenic evolution of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Nature ; 597(7874): 97-102, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309448

ABSTRACT

An ideal therapeutic anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape1-3, have activity against diverse sarbecoviruses4-7, and be highly protective through viral neutralization8-11 and effector functions12,13. Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and guide vaccine design. Here we comprehensively characterize escape, breadth and potency across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Despite a trade-off between in vitro neutralization potency and breadth of sarbecovirus binding, we identify neutralizing antibodies with exceptional sarbecovirus breadth and a corresponding resistance to SARS-CoV-2 escape. One of these antibodies, S2H97, binds with high affinity across all sarbecovirus clades to a cryptic epitope and prophylactically protects hamsters from viral challenge. Antibodies that target the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-binding motif (RBM) typically have poor breadth and are readily escaped by mutations despite high neutralization potency. Nevertheless, we also characterize a potent RBM antibody (S2E128) with breadth across sarbecoviruses related to SARS-CoV-2 and a high barrier to viral escape. These data highlight principles underlying variation in escape, breadth and potency among antibodies that target the RBD, and identify epitopes and features to prioritize for therapeutic development against the current and potential future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Male , Mesocricetus , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccinology
6.
J Infect Dis ; 223(2): 197-205, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060937

ABSTRACT

Most individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop neutralizing antibodies that target the viral spike protein. In this study, we quantified how levels of these antibodies change in the months after SARS-CoV-2 infection by examining longitudinal samples collected approximately 30-152 days after symptom onset from a prospective cohort of 32 recovered individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate-severe disease. Neutralizing antibody titers declined an average of about 4-fold from 1 to 4 months after symptom onset. This decline in neutralizing antibody titers was accompanied by a decline in total antibodies capable of binding the viral spike protein or its receptor-binding domain. Importantly, our data are consistent with the expected early immune response to viral infection, where an initial peak in antibody levels is followed by a decline to a lower plateau. Additional studies of long-lived B cells and antibody titers over longer time frames are necessary to determine the durability of immunity to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Science ; 371(6531): 850-854, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048645

ABSTRACT

Antibodies are a potential therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the risk of the virus evolving to escape them remains unclear. Here we map how all mutations to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 affect binding by the antibodies in the REGN-COV2 cocktail and the antibody LY-CoV016. These complete maps uncover a single amino acid mutation that fully escapes the REGN-COV2 cocktail, which consists of two antibodies, REGN10933 and REGN10987, targeting distinct structural epitopes. The maps also identify viral mutations that are selected in a persistently infected patient treated with REGN-COV2 and during in vitro viral escape selections. Finally, the maps reveal that mutations escaping the individual antibodies are already present in circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains. These complete escape maps enable interpretation of the consequences of mutations observed during viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4378, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740036

ABSTRACT

Children are strikingly underrepresented in COVID-19 case counts. In the United States, children represent 22% of the population but only 1.7% of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases as of April 2, 2020. One possibility is that symptom-based viral testing is less likely to identify infected children, since they often experience milder disease than adults. Here, to better assess the frequency of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection, we serologically screen 1,775 residual samples from Seattle Children's Hospital collected from 1,076 children seeking medical care during March and April of 2020. Only one child was seropositive in March, but seven were seropositive in April for a period seroprevalence of ≈1%. Most seropositive children (6/8) were not suspected of having had COVID-19. The sera of seropositive children have neutralizing activity, including one that neutralized at a dilution > 1:18,000. Therefore, an increasing number of children seeking medical care were infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the early Seattle outbreak despite few positive viral tests.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Visitors to Patients , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , United States/epidemiology
9.
Cell ; 182(5): 1295-1310.e20, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709109

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein mediates viral attachment to ACE2 receptor and is a major determinant of host range and a dominant target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we experimentally measure how all amino acid mutations to the RBD affect expression of folded protein and its affinity for ACE2. Most mutations are deleterious for RBD expression and ACE2 binding, and we identify constrained regions on the RBD's surface that may be desirable targets for vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics. But a substantial number of mutations are well tolerated or even enhance ACE2 binding, including at ACE2 interface residues that vary across SARS-related coronaviruses. However, we find no evidence that these ACE2-affinity-enhancing mutations have been selected in current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic isolates. We present an interactive visualization and open analysis pipeline to facilitate use of our dataset for vaccine design and functional annotation of mutations observed during viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Phenotype , Protein Binding , Protein Folding , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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