Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Am J Perinatol ; 2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize attitudes toward novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and to evaluate factors associated with vaccine uptake among pregnant individuals. STUDY DESIGN: An anonymous survey was distributed to a convenience sample of pregnant individuals receiving prenatal care at two large urban academic hospitals in a single health care network in Massachusetts. Individual demographic variables were included in the survey along with questions assessing attitudes toward COVID-19 and vaccination in pregnancy. Data were analyzed using parametric or nonparametric tests when appropriate, and associated odds ratios (OR) were calculated via univariable logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 684 surveys distributed, and 477 pregnant and postpartum individuals completed the survey, for a response rate of 69.7%. Overall, 233 (49.3%) had received or were scheduled to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Age, White race, non-Hispanic or Latinx ethnicity, working from home, and typical receipt of the influenza vaccine were associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Further, 276 respondents (58.4%) reported that their provider recommended the COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy; these participants were more likely to have received a vaccine (OR = 5.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.68-9.26, p < 0.005). Vaccinated individuals were less likely to be worried about the effects of the vaccine on themselves (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.12-0.27, p < 0.005) or their developing babies (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11-0.26, p < 0.005). Unvaccinated individuals were less likely to report that it is easy to schedule a COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, p = 0.02), to travel to receive a vaccine (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36, p < 0.005), and to miss work to receive a vaccine (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.48, p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Strategies are needed to improve patient education regarding vaccine side effects and safety in pregnancy. Policy changes should focus on making it feasible for patients to schedule a vaccine and miss work without loss of pay to get vaccinated. KEY POINTS: · There were racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccination.. · Unvaccinated respondents were more likely to be concerned about vaccine effects for themselves or their growing babies.. · Unvaccinated respondents cited work and scheduling-related barriers to vaccination, indicating areas for advocacy..

3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(3): 303.e1-303.e17, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and lactating women were excluded from initial coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine trials; thus, data to guide vaccine decision making are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and lactating women compared with: (1) nonpregnant controls and (2) natural coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 131 reproductive-age vaccine recipients (84 pregnant, 31 lactating, and 16 nonpregnant women) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at 2 academic medical centers. Titers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M were quantified in participant sera (n=131) and breastmilk (n=31) at baseline, at the second vaccine dose, at 2 to 6 weeks after the second vaccine, and at delivery by Luminex. Umbilical cord sera (n=10) titers were assessed at delivery. Titers were compared with those of pregnant women 4 to 12 weeks from the natural infection (n=37) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A pseudovirus neutralization assay was used to quantify neutralizing antibody titers for the subset of women who delivered during the study period. Postvaccination symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests and a mixed-effects model, with correction for multiple comparisons, were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced antibody titers were equivalent in pregnant and lactating compared with nonpregnant women (pregnant, median, 5.59; interquartile range, 4.68-5.89; lactating, median, 5.74; interquartile range, 5.06-6.22; nonpregnant, median, 5.62; interquartile range, 4.77-5.98, P=.24). All titers were significantly higher than those induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy (P<.0001). Vaccine-generated antibodies were present in all umbilical cord blood and breastmilk samples. Neutralizing antibody titers were lower in umbilical cord than maternal sera, although this finding did not achieve statistical significance (maternal sera, median, 104.7; interquartile range, 61.2-188.2; cord sera, median, 52.3; interquartile range, 11.7-69.6; P=.05). The second vaccine dose (boost dose) increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin A, in maternal blood and breastmilk. No differences were noted in reactogenicity across the groups. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccines generated robust humoral immunity in pregnant and lactating women, with immunogenicity and reactogenicity similar to that observed in nonpregnant women. Vaccine-induced immune responses were statistically significantly greater than the response to natural infection. Immune transfer to neonates occurred via placenta and breastmilk.

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(3): 303.e1-303.e17, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and lactating women were excluded from initial coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine trials; thus, data to guide vaccine decision making are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and lactating women compared with: (1) nonpregnant controls and (2) natural coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 131 reproductive-age vaccine recipients (84 pregnant, 31 lactating, and 16 nonpregnant women) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at 2 academic medical centers. Titers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M were quantified in participant sera (n=131) and breastmilk (n=31) at baseline, at the second vaccine dose, at 2 to 6 weeks after the second vaccine, and at delivery by Luminex. Umbilical cord sera (n=10) titers were assessed at delivery. Titers were compared with those of pregnant women 4 to 12 weeks from the natural infection (n=37) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A pseudovirus neutralization assay was used to quantify neutralizing antibody titers for the subset of women who delivered during the study period. Postvaccination symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests and a mixed-effects model, with correction for multiple comparisons, were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced antibody titers were equivalent in pregnant and lactating compared with nonpregnant women (pregnant, median, 5.59; interquartile range, 4.68-5.89; lactating, median, 5.74; interquartile range, 5.06-6.22; nonpregnant, median, 5.62; interquartile range, 4.77-5.98, P=.24). All titers were significantly higher than those induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy (P<.0001). Vaccine-generated antibodies were present in all umbilical cord blood and breastmilk samples. Neutralizing antibody titers were lower in umbilical cord than maternal sera, although this finding did not achieve statistical significance (maternal sera, median, 104.7; interquartile range, 61.2-188.2; cord sera, median, 52.3; interquartile range, 11.7-69.6; P=.05). The second vaccine dose (boost dose) increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin A, in maternal blood and breastmilk. No differences were noted in reactogenicity across the groups. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccines generated robust humoral immunity in pregnant and lactating women, with immunogenicity and reactogenicity similar to that observed in nonpregnant women. Vaccine-induced immune responses were statistically significantly greater than the response to natural infection. Immune transfer to neonates occurred via placenta and breastmilk.

5.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(1): 24-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While studies from large cities affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reported on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of universal testing during admission for delivery, the patient demographic, social and clinical factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in women admitted for labour and delivery, in the context of universal screening at four Boston-area hospitals. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we reviewed the health records of all women admitted for labour and delivery at four hospitals from the largest health system in Massachusetts between 19 April 2020 and 27 June 2020. We calculated the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including asymptomatic infection. We calculated associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients (3.2%, 95% confidence interval 2.5, 3.8) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on admission for labour and delivery out of 2945 patients included in the analysis; 80 (86.0%) of the patients who tested positive were asymptomatic at the time of testing. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection included the following: younger age, obesity, African American or Hispanic race/ethnicity, residence in heavily affected communities (as measured in cases reported per capita), presence of a household member with known SARS-CoV-2 infection, non-health care essential worker occupation and MassHealth or Medicaid insurance compared to commercial insurance. 93.8% of patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on admission had one or more identifiable factors associated with disease acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: In this large sample of deliveries during the height of the surge in infections during the spring of 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely concentrated in patients with distinct demographic characteristics, those largely from disadvantaged communities. Racial disparities seen in pregnancy persist with respect to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Massachusetts , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030455, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985883

ABSTRACT

Importance: Biological data are lacking with respect to risk of vertical transmission and mechanisms of fetoplacental protection in maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal biofluids, transplacental passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, and incidence of fetoplacental infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among pregnant women presenting for care at 3 tertiary care centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Women with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results positive for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited from April 2 to June 13, 2020, and follow-up occurred through July 10, 2020. Contemporaneous participants without SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled as a convenience sample from pregnant women with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, defined by nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal plasma or respiratory fluids and umbilical cord plasma, quantification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in maternal and cord plasma, and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the placenta. Results: Among 127 pregnant women enrolled, 64 with RT-PCR results positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 31.6 [5.6] years) and 63 with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [5.4] years) provided samples for analysis. Of women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 23 (36%) were asymptomatic, 22 (34%) had mild disease, 7 (11%) had moderate disease, 10 (16%) had severe disease, and 2 (3%) had critical disease. In viral load analyses among 107 women, there was no detectable viremia in maternal or cord blood and no evidence of vertical transmission. Among 77 neonates tested in whom SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were quantified in cord blood, 1 had detectable immunoglobuilin M to nucleocapsid. Among 88 placentas tested, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any. In antibody analyses among 37 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G was detected in 24 women (65%) and anti-nucleocapsid was detected in 26 women (70%). Mother-to-neonate transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower than transfer of anti-influenza hemagglutinin A antibodies (mean [SD] cord-to-maternal ratio: anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G, 0.72 [0.57]; anti-nucleocapsid, 0.74 [0.44]; anti-influenza, 1.44 [0.80]; P < .001). Nonoverlapping placental expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was no evidence of placental infection or definitive vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Transplacental transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was inefficient. Lack of viremia and reduced coexpression and colocalization of placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 may serve as protective mechanisms against vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
8.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(2): 293-295, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690925
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL