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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785744

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has been shown to possess many applications in different fields of medicine. This systematic review has drawn attention to the axis between resveratrol and human microbiota, which plays a key role in maintaining an adequate immune response that can lead to different diseases when compromised. Resveratrol can also be an asset in new technologies, such as gene therapy. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to find papers that matched our topic dating from 1 January 2017 up to 18 January 2022, with English-language restriction using the following Boolean keywords: ("resveratrol" AND "microbio*"). Eighteen studies were included as relevant papers matching the purpose of our investigation. Immune response, prevention of thrombotic complications, microbiota, gene therapy, and bone regeneration were retrieved as the main topics. The analyzed studies mostly involved resveratrol supplementation and its effects on human microbiota by trials in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. The beneficial activity of resveratrol is evident by analyzing the changes in the host's genetic expression and the gastrointestinal microbial community with its administration. The possibility of identifying individual microbial families may allow to tailor therapeutic plans with targeted polyphenolic diets when associated with microbial dysbiosis, such as inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, degenerative diseases, tumors, obesity, diabetes, bone tissue regeneration, and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Obesity/drug therapy , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use
2.
Children (Basel) ; 9(2)2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686624

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak appeared to affect mostly the adult population, sparing the vast majority of children who only showed mild symptoms. The purpose of this investigation is to assess the status on the mechanisms that give children and infants this variation in epidemiology compared to the adult population and its impact on therapies and vaccines that are aimed towards them. A literature review, including in vitro studies, reviews, published guidelines and clinical trials was performed. Clinical trials concerned topics that allowed a descriptive synthesis to be produced. Four underlying mechanisms were found that may play a key role in providing COVID-19 protection in babies. No guidelines are available yet for therapy due to insufficient data; support therapy remains the most used. Only two vaccines are approved by the World Health Organization to be used in children from 12 years of age, and there are currently no efficacy or safety data for children below the age of 12 years. The COVID-19 clinical frame infection is milder in children and adolescents. This section of the population can act as vectors and reservoirs and play a key role in the transmission of the infection; therefore, vaccines are paramount. More evidence is required to guide safely the vaccination campaign.

3.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in China, spreading worldwide. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunological response and the clinical subset of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19 infection. METHODS: the study was conducted on four different clinical groups (n = 4; total n = 138). Each individual was assigned to different groups based on specific criteria evaluated at the admission such as fever, dyspnea, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), oral-nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR, and thoracic CT-scan. Treatment was performed only after blood samples were collected from each patient (PP and PP) at day 1. The blood samples were analyzed and tested the same day (CBC and Flowcytometry). The positive-positive group (PP n = 45; F = 18/ M = 27; median age = 62.33), comprised individuals affected by COVID-19 who showed fever, dyspnea (ABG = pO2 < 60), confirmed positive by oral-nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR and with CT-scan showing ground-glass opacities. The negative-positive (NP; n = 37; F = 11/M = 26; median age = 75.94) or "COVID-like" group comprised individuals with fever and dyspnea (ABG = pO2 < 60), who tested negative to nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR, with CT-scans showing ground-glass opacities in the lungs. The negative-affected group (NA; n = 40; F = 14/M = 26; median age = 58.5) included individuals negative to COVID-19 (RT-PCR) but affected by different chronic respiratory diseases (the CT-scans didn't show ground-glass opacities). Finally, the negative-negative group (NN; n = 16; F = 14/M = 2) included healthy patients (NN; n = 16; median age = 42.62). Data and findings were collected and compared. RESULTS: Lymphocytes (%) cells showed a decline in COVID-19 patients. The subsets showed a significant association with the inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially with regard to increased neutrophils, T-killer, T-active, T-suppressor, and T-CD8+CD38+ in individuals belong to the either COVID-19 and Covid-like NP group. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with the clinical characteristics and progression of COVID-19. The level of sub-set cells T-lymphocytes (either high or low) and B-lymphocytes could be used as an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has involved a severe increase of cases worldwide in a wide range of populations. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate recent insights about COVID-19 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. METHODS: a literature overview was performed including clinical trials, in vitro studies, reviews and published guidelines regarding the present paper topic. A descriptive synthesis was performed to evaluate recent insights and the effectiveness of therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. RESULTS: Insufficient data are available regarding the relationship between COVID-19 and the clinical risk of spontaneous abortion and premature foetus death. A decrease in the incidence of COVID-19 could be correlated to a minor expression of ACE2 in childrens' lungs. At present, a modulation of the dose-effect posology for children and infants is necessary. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant vertical transmission has been hypothesised for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccines are necessary to achieve mass immunity for children and also pregnant subjects.

5.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on recent findings, we speculated the existence of the lung, heart, and kidney axis as the main pathway for the COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: This paper reports on an observational study conducted by a team of researchers and doctors of the 118-Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department of SG Moscati of Taranto City in Italy. The study was conducted on a totality of 185 participants that were divided into three groups. The study group included COVID-19 affected patients (PP n = 80), the first control group included patients with different pathologies (non-COVID-19 NNp n = 62) of the SG Moscati Hospital, and the second control group included healthy individuals (NNh n = 43). The core of the current trial was focused on assessing the level of the vitamin D (serum 25(OH) D concentration), IL-6, and the renal glomerular filtrate (eGFR) in COVID-19 disease and non-COVID-19 patients in both groups. RESULTS: It was observed that the majority of COVID-19-infected patients showed a progressive multi-organ involvement, especially in regard to the lung, kidney, and heart. The majority of the COVID-19 patients exhibited preexisting comorbidities which include cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal disorders accompanied by a severely low level of vitamin D, extremely high level of IL-6, and low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The significant overall damages exerted by the immune-mediated responses under the hyper-expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukins, such as IL-6, may be facilitated by either a decreased level of vitamin D or the ageing process. The reduced presence of vitamin D was often found together with a reduced functionality of renal activity, as revealed by the low eGFR, and both were seen to be concomitant with an increased mortality risk in patients with lung disorders and heart failure (HF), whether it is showed at baseline or it develops during manifestation of COVID-19. Therefore, the documentation of the modifiable risk factors related to SARS-CoV-2 and lung impairment in older patients with kidney and heart disease may help the clinician to better manage the situation. CONCLUSIONS: This paper addresses how a low level of vitamin D and older age may be indicative of systemic worsening in patients with COVID-19, with a goal of providing a broader context in which to view a better therapeutic approach.

6.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335156

ABSTRACT

To date, several cases of thrombosis have been confirmed to be related to Sars-CoV-2 infection. Multiple attempts detected the prolonged occurrence of Sars-CoV-2 viral RNA (long COVID) in whole blood suggesting that virus byproducts may remain within cells and tissues well over the disease has finished. Patients may develop severe thrombocytopenia, acute anemia of inflammation and, systemic thrombosis with the fatal course of disease, which is suggestive of further interferences of Sars-CoV-2 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) within the differentiation process towards erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. Therefore, we speculated whether Sars-CoV-2 propagates in or compartmentalizes with hematopoietic progenitor, erythroid, and megakaryocytic cells as the main cause of thrombotic events in either COVID-19 patients or vaccinated individuals. Results: The Sars-CoV-2 RNA replication, protein translation and infectious particle formation as the spike proteins in hematopoietic cell lines take place via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) entry pathway within primary CD34+ HSCs inducing, ex vivo, the formation of defected erythroid and megakaryocytic cells that eventually become targets of humoral and adaptive immune cells. Conclusions: Viral particles from affected CD34+ HSCs or the cellular component of RBC units and eventually platelets, present the greatest risk for sever thrombosis-transmitted Sars-CoV-2 infections.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259481

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, medical education changed from traditional teaching methods to telematic and networking scholar and e-learning approach. The objective of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness and teachers/student's acceptability of e-learning applied to the field of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry. A database search of the literature was conducted on PubMed and Embase databases from January 2005 to May 2021. A total of 172 articles were identified by the electronic search, while a total of 32 papers were selected for qualitative analysis. Overall, 19 articles investigated the effectiveness of e-learning, and no difference of acceptability was reported between e-learning and traditional methods for a wide part of the articles selected. A total of 25 papers provided a satisfaction questionnaire for learners and all were positive in their attitude towards e-learning. The results showed that e-learning is an effective method of instruction, complementing the traditional teaching methods, and learners had a positive attitude and perception. The evidence of the present study reported a high level of acceptability and knowledge level of e-learning techniques, compared to frontal lecture methods, in the fields of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Dentistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
8.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread worldwide, with a daily increase in confirmed cases and infection-related deaths. The World Health Organization declared a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. COVID-19 presents flu-like symptoms that become severe in high-risk medically compromised subjects. The aim of this study was to perform an updated overview of the treatments and adjuvant protocols for COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search of databases was performed (MEDLINE PubMed, Google Scholar, UpToDate, Embase, and Web of Science) using the keywords: "COVID-19", "2019-nCoV", "coronavirus" and "SARS-CoV-2" (date range: 1 January 2019 to 31st October 2020), focused on clinical features and treatments. RESULTS: The main treatments retrieved were antivirals, antimalarials, convalescent plasma, immunomodulators, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, and mesenchymal stem cells. Most of the described treatments may provide benefits to COVID-19 subjects, but no one protocol has definitively proven its efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: While many efforts are being spent worldwide in research aimed at identifying early diagnostic methods and evidence-based effective treatments, mass vaccination is thought to be the best option against this disease in the near future.

9.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178360

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which is believed to have originated in China towards the end of November 2019, has now spread across the globe, causing a pandemic in 192 countries. The World Health Organization has called it the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Rapid dissemination of the virus occurs mainly through the saliva (Flügge's droplets) and aerosol, together with nasal and lachrymal passages. The literature associated with the recent advancement in terms of rapid diagnostics and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has thoroughly studied the role of ACE2 receptors and Furin, as well as viral agent access into the host cell and its significant persistence at the level of the oral mucosa, which represents the main access to the virus. The purpose of this review was to underline the processes of SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and novel breakthroughs in diagnostics and vaccines. Different technologies, such as the RT-PCR molecular test and the antigenic test, have been developed to identify subjects affected by the SARS-CoV-2 in order to improve the tracking of infection geographical diffusion. Novel rapid and highly sensitive diagnostic tests has been proposed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 to improve the screening capability of suspected contagions. The strengthening of the vaccination campaign represents the most effective means to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection and prevent severe manifestations of the virus-different classes of vaccines have been developed for this purpose. Further attention on the novel SARS-CoV-2 variant is necessary in order to verify the protection efficacy and virulence reduction of the infective agent in the recent vaccine campaign.

10.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129753

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a high-risk viral agent involved in the recent pandemic stated worldwide by the World Health Organization. The infection is correlated to a severe systemic and respiratory disease in many cases, which is clinically treated with a multi-drug pharmacological approach. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate through a literature overview the effect of adjuvant therapies and supplements for the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The research has analyzed the advantage of the EK1C4, by also assessing the studies on the resveratrol, vitamin D, and melatonin as adjuvant supplements for long hauler patients' prognosis. The evaluated substances reported important benefits for the improvement of the immune system and as a potential inhibitor molecules against SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the use of sartans as therapy. The adjuvant supplements seem to create an advantage for the healing of the long hauler patients affected by chronic symptoms of constant chest and heart pain, intestinal disorders, headache, difficulty concentrating, memory loss, and tachycardia.

11.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 22(1): 1-5, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052469

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a challenge for emergency care units worldwide due to the large numbers of patients, the scarcity of information, the medical resources, and the uncertainty regarding the disease's etiology and pathogenesis. The transmission of the virus and a probable post-pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 will depend on how deep this disease, the duration of immunity and the degree of cross immunity between SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens either bacteria or fungi can be understood. Most mortalities have been related to an atypical pneumonia consisted of a sudden worsening of general condition of the admitted positive COVID-19 patients. The severe thromboembolism, often characterized by violent pulmonary and systemic complications, have been described with a blend of inflammatory-infectious patterns that rapidly shifted into a typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or into an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that eventually concluded into a multi-organ failure (MOF) and death. The fatality rate reported in our Covid-19 structure, SG Moscati Hospital of Taranto province in Italy, was higher in elderly male people with preexisting chronic pulmonary disease (COPD), patients with cancer and preexisting cardio-vascular diseases (CVD). We assumed a different theoretical position to clarify the higher mortality seen among those patients that was not as obvious as it appeared, we thus offered different pathophysiological picture that could help to recent solutions in therapy and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interleukin-10/deficiency , Interleukin-10/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976333

ABSTRACT

In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic, the medical system has been subjected to many changes. Face-to-face treatments have been suspended for a period of time. After the lockdown, dentists have to be aware of the modalities to protect themselves and their patients in order not to get infected. Dental practitioners are potentially exposed to a high degree of contamination with SARS-CoV-2 while performing dental procedures that produce aerosols. It should also be noted that the airways, namely the oral cavity and nostrils, are the access pathways for SARS-CoV-2. In order to protect themselves and their patients, they have to use full personal protective equipment. Relevant data regarding this pandemic are under evaluation and are still under test. In this article, we made a synthesis about the way in which SARS-CoV-2 spreads, how to diagnose a novel corona virus infection, what the possible treatments are, and which protective personal equipment we can use to stop its spreading.

13.
Microorganisms ; 8(11):1704, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896219

ABSTRACT

In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic, the medical system has been subjected to many changes. Face-to-face treatments have been suspended for a period of time. After the lockdown, dentists have to be aware of the modalities to protect themselves and their patients in order not to get infected. Dental practitioners are potentially exposed to a high degree of contamination with SARS-CoV-2 while performing dental procedures that produce aerosols. It should also be noted that the airways, namely the oral cavity and nostrils, are the access pathways for SARS-CoV-2. In order to protect themselves and their patients, they have to use full personal protective equipment. Relevant data regarding this pandemic are under evaluation and are still under test. In this article, we made a synthesis about the way in which SARS-CoV-2 spreads, how to diagnose a novel corona virus infection, what the possible treatments are, and which protective personal equipment we can use to stop its spreading.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902535

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China in December 2019 and rapidly caused a global health pandemic. Current evidence seems to suggest a possible link with ecosystem disequilibrium and even air pollution. The primary manifestations affect respiratory and circulatory systems, but neurological features are also being reported through case reports and case series. We summarize neurological symptoms and complications associated with COVID-19. We have searched for original articles published in PubMed/Medline, PubMed Central and Google Scholar using the following keywords: "COVID-19", "Coronavirus", "pandemic", "SARS-COV-2", "neurology", "neurological", "complications" and "manifestations". We found around 1000 publications addressing the issue of neurological conditions associated with COVID-19 infection. Amongst those, headache and dizziness are the most common reported symptoms followed by encephalopathy and delirium, while the most frequent complications are cerebrovascular accidents, Guillain-Barré syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, and acute encephalitis. Specific symptoms affecting the peripheral nervous system such as hyposmia and dysgeusia are the most common manifestations recorded in the selected studies. Interestingly, it was noted that these kinds of neurological symptoms might precede the typical features, such as fever and cough, in COVID patients. Neurological symptoms and complications associated with COVID-19 should be considered as a part of the clinical features of this novel global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Dizziness/etiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Headache/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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