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NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 18, 2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243664


Development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that protect vulnerable populations is a public health priority. Here, we took a systematic and iterative approach by testing several adjuvants and SARS-CoV-2 antigens to identify a combination that elicits antibodies and protection in young and aged mice. While demonstrating superior immunogenicity to soluble receptor-binding domain (RBD), RBD displayed as a protein nanoparticle (RBD-NP) generated limited antibody responses. Comparison of multiple adjuvants including AddaVax, AddaS03, and AS01B in young and aged mice demonstrated that an oil-in-water emulsion containing carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate derivative (CMS:O/W) most effectively enhanced RBD-NP-induced cross-neutralizing antibodies and protection across age groups. CMS:O/W enhanced antigen retention in the draining lymph node, induced injection site, and lymph node cytokines, with CMS inducing MyD88-dependent Th1 cytokine polarization. Furthermore, CMS and O/W synergistically induced chemokine production from human PBMCs. Overall, CMS:O/W adjuvant may enhance immunogenicity and protection of vulnerable populations against SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious pathogens.

EBioMedicine ; 83: 104208, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035962


BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the association between characteristics of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and outcome is needed to further improve upon patient management. METHODS: Immunophenotyping Assessment in a COVID-19 Cohort (IMPACC) is a prospective, observational study of 1164 patients from 20 hospitals across the United States. Disease severity was assessed using a 7-point ordinal scale based on degree of respiratory illness. Patients were prospectively surveyed for 1 year after discharge for post-acute sequalae of COVID-19 (PASC) through quarterly surveys. Demographics, comorbidities, radiographic findings, clinical laboratory values, SARS-CoV-2 PCR and serology were captured over a 28-day period. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. FINDINGS: The median age was 59 years (interquartile range [IQR] 20); 711 (61%) were men; overall mortality was 14%, and 228 (20%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. Unsupervised clustering of ordinal score over time revealed distinct disease course trajectories. Risk factors associated with prolonged hospitalization or death by day 28 included age ≥ 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI 1.28-3.17), Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.57), elevated baseline creatinine (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1.63- 4.80) or troponin (OR 1.89; 95% 1.03-3.47), baseline lymphopenia (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.61-2.97), presence of infiltrate by chest imaging (OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.96-5.10), and high SARS-CoV2 viral load (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.17-2.00). Fatal cases had the lowest ratio of SARS-CoV-2 antibody to viral load levels compared to other trajectories over time (p=0.001). 589 survivors (51%) completed at least one survey at follow-up with 305 (52%) having at least one symptom consistent with PASC, most commonly dyspnea (56% among symptomatic patients). Female sex was the only associated risk factor for PASC. INTERPRETATION: Integration of PCR cycle threshold, and antibody values with demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory/radiographic findings identified risk factors for 28-day outcome severity, though only female sex was associated with PASC. Longitudinal clinical phenotyping offers important insights, and provides a framework for immunophenotyping for acute and long COVID-19. FUNDING: NIH.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Creatinine , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome