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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(16)2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950563

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation may play a role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19; however, its role in the pediatric manifestations of this disease, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and chilblain-like lesions (CLLs), otherwise known as "COVID toes," remains unclear. Studying multinational cohorts, we found that, in CLLs, NETs were significantly increased in serum and skin. There was geographic variability in the prevalence of increased NETs in MIS-C, in association with disease severity. MIS-C and CLL serum samples displayed decreased NET degradation ability, in association with C1q and G-actin or anti-NET antibodies, respectively, but not with genetic variants of DNases. In adult COVID-19, persistent elevations in NETs after disease diagnosis were detected but did not occur in asymptomatic infection. COVID-19-affected adults displayed significant prevalence of impaired NET degradation, in association with anti-DNase1L3, G-actin, and specific disease manifestations, but not with genetic variants of DNases. NETs were detected in many organs of adult patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Infection with the Omicron variant was associated with decreased NET levels when compared with other SARS-CoV-2 strains. These data support a role for NETs in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric and adult patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Actins/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Deoxyribonuclease I , Humans , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675

ABSTRACT

The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Changes of routine disease management associated with COVID-19 lockdown might have potentially affected the clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Aim of our study was to assess the rate of disease flare before and during COVID-19 lockdown to investigate its impact on disease course in JIA children. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study was conducted, including patients presenting inactive JIA between September 1st , 2018 and March 9th , 2019 (group A) and between September 1st , 2019 and March 9th , 2020 (group B). For each patient, demographic and clinical data were collected. The rate of JIA flare from March 10th , 2019 to June 30th , 2019 for group A and from March 10th , 2020 to June 30th , 2020 for group B was compared. RESULTS: Group A included 126 patients and group B 124 patients. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences among the two cohorts with respect to age, sex, age of JIA onset, JIA subtype, co-occurrence of uveitis, ANA positivity and past or ongoing medications. The rate of disease flare during lockdown at time of first COVID-19 pandemic wave, was significantly higher in comparison to the previous year (16.9% vs 6.3%, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a higher rate of joint inflammation in JIA children. This finding has a considerable clinical implication, since restrictive measures may be necessary in order to contain pandemics. Our data highlight the need for rearrangement in the home and healthcare management of JIA children during lockdowns.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111369, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263036

ABSTRACT

Importance: Chilblain-like lesions have been one of the most frequently described cutaneous manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their etiopathogenesis, including the role of SARS-CoV-2, remains elusive. Objective: To examine the association of chilblain-like lesions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series enrolled 17 adolescents who presented with chilblain-like lesions from April 1 to June 30, 2020, at a tertiary referral academic hospital in Italy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Macroscopic (clinical and dermoscopic) and microscopic (histopathologic) analysis contributed to a thorough understanding of the lesions. Nasopharyngeal swab, serologic testing, and in situ hybridization of the skin biopsy specimens were performed to test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory tests explored signs of systemic inflammation or thrombophilia. Structural changes in peripheral microcirculation were investigated by capillaroscopy. Results: Of the 17 adolescents (9 [52.9%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 13.2 [12.5-14.3] years) enrolled during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 16 (94.1%) had bilaterally localized distal erythematous or cyanotic lesions. A triad of red dots (16 [100%]), white rosettes (11 [68.8%]), and white streaks (10 [62.5%]) characterized the dermoscopic picture. Histologic analysis revealed a remodeling of the dermal blood vessels with a lobular arrangement, wall thickening, and a mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. SARS-CoV-2 infection was excluded by molecular and serologic testing. In situ hybridization did not highlight the viral genome in the lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: This study delineated the clinical, histologic, and laboratory features of chilblain-like lesions that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its findings do not support their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The lesions occurred in otherwise healthy adolescents, had a long but benign course to self-resolution, and were characterized by a microvascular remodeling with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate but no other signs of vasculitis. These results suggest that chilblain-like lesions do not imply a concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ongoing studies will help clarify the etiopathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin/pathology , Toes/pathology , Vascular Remodeling , Adolescent , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Toes/blood supply
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