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2.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 15(1): 664, 2020 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical face masks are integral personal protective equipment against infectious airborne disease and become scarce during epidemic outbreaks such as COVID-19. A novel, sustainably manufactured face mask with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties from oil of Folium Plectranthii amboinicii can be an effective alternative to internationally sold masks. METHODS: This prospective, randomized study assigned subjects (n=67) to either conventional surgical face mask or Lamdong Medical College (LMC) face mask for three hours. Fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FENO) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured before and after mask use. Subjective reporting on respiratory symptoms was also analyzed. Masks were then incubated and analyzed for microorganism growth. RESULTS: Subjects assigned the LMC mask had a lowered FENO (p<0.05) compared to conventional face masks after mask wearing. Subjects with LMC mask use reported higher comfortability (p<0.05), breathability (p<0.05), and lower allergy symptoms (p<0.05). The LMC mask has visually less microorganism growth in the cultured medium, measured by sterile ring radius. CONCLUSIONS: The LMC face mask is a renewably manufactured personal protective tool with antibacterial capacity that can serve as an effective alternative to internationally sold surgical face mask during shortage of mask due to COVID-19.

3.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589183, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083142

ABSTRACT

Due to the shared border with China, Vietnam faced risks from the COVID-19 pandemic at the early stages of the outbreak. Good hygiene practices were considered an effective prevention method, but there were only minimal data on the effectiveness of hygiene practices against the pandemic at the community level. Thus, this study aims to assess hygiene practices in society by using a community-based survey. A cross-sectional study using survey monkey was conducted from December 2019 to February 2020. The Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants and exploratory factor analysis was applied to scrutinize the construct validity of the measurement. We used the Tobit regression model to assess the association. Hygiene in a high-risk environment and hygiene in the social and educational environment were two main factors after applying the EFA method. Participants grade community sanitation quite low (around 6 out of 10). Furthermore, the mean score of hygiene practice at a local level in a high-risk environment was slightly low at 6.0. The score of sanitation in the Central region (5.3) was quite low compared to the North (5.8) and the South (6.2). The most high-risk environment was construction, industrial zone and food safety. Moreover, younger respondents were more likely to report poorer hygiene practices in high-risk environments (Coefficient = -1.67; 95% CI = -3.03; -0.32) and social and educational environment (Coefficient = -1.29; 95% CI = -2.54; -0.04). Our study gives an insight into pandemic preparedness at the grassroots level. The findings suggest the necessity of specific communication education for society to improve the compliance of hygiene practices to prevent the spreading of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Sanitation , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243889, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incubation period of Vietnamese confirmed COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Only confirmed COVID-19 cases who are Vietnamese and locally infected with available data on date of symptom onset and clearly defined window of possible SARS-CoV-2 exposure were included. We used three parametric forms with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo method for Bayesian Inference to estimate incubation period for Vietnamese COVID-19 cases. Leave-one-out Information Criterion was used to assess the performance of three models. RESULTS: A total of 19 cases identified from 23 Jan 2020 to 13 April 2020 was included in our analysis. Average incubation periods estimated using different distribution model ranged from 6.0 days to 6.4 days with the Weibull distribution demonstrated the best fit to the data. The estimated mean of incubation period using Weibull distribution model was 6.4 days (95% credible interval (CrI): 4.89-8.5), standard deviation (SD) was 3.05 (95%CrI 3.05-5.30), median was 5.6, ranges from 1.35 to 13.04 days (2.5th to 97.5th percentiles). Extreme estimation of incubation periods is within 14 days from possible infection. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides evidence for an average incubation period for COVID-19 of approximately 6.4 days. Our findings support existing guidelines for 14 days of quarantine of persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Although for extreme cases, the quarantine period should be extended up to three weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Vietnam/epidemiology
5.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589331, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940212

ABSTRACT

Upon the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, countries worldwide face a critical shortage of human resources in the health sector. Medical students are a potential task force with the capability to support the stretched health sector. This study aims to evaluate their training need for epidemic control in order to employ them effectively. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based survey from December 2019 to February 2020. There were 5,786 observations collected using the snowball sampling technique. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with training participation in epidemic prevention and disaster prevention. Multiple Poisson regression model was constructed to examine factors associated with the number of times they participated in sanitation training and disaster prevention activities in the previous 12 months. Sanitation and health education communication activities had the highest proportion of participants, with 76.5 and 38.4%, followed by examining and treating diseases in the community (13.4%). Those who participated in community activities had a higher number of times to participate in epidemic sanitation training and be involved in disaster prevention. This study informed the need for training programs to prepare medical students for COVID-19 epidemic responses. The training curriculum should include both theoretical approaches and contextual approaches to achieve efficient epidemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 824, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782041

ABSTRACT

This is the first time in Vietnam that people have undergone "social distancing" to minimize the spreading of infectious disease, COVID-19. These deliberate preemptive strategies may have profound impacts on the mental health of the population. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on Vietnamese people and associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study during a one-week social distancing and isolation from April 7 to 14, 2020, in Vietnam. A snowball sampling technique was carried out to recruit participants. Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was utilized to assess the psychological impacts of the COVID-19. Of all participants, 233 (16.4%) reported low level of PTSS; 76 (5.3%) rated as moderate, and 77 (5.4%) reported extreme psychological conditions. Being female, above 44 years old, or having a higher number of children in the family were positively associated with a higher level of psychological distress. Being self-employed/unemployed/retired was associated with a higher score of intrusion and hyperarousal subscale. Individuals who have a history of touching objects with the possibility of spreading coronavirus (utensils) were related to a higher level of avoidance. There were relatively high rates of participants suffering from PTSS during the first national lockdown related to COVID-19. Comprehensive strategies for the screen of psychological problems and to support high-risk groups are critical, especially females, middle-aged adults and the elderly, affected laborers, and health care professionals.

7.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 112, 2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771297

ABSTRACT

Background: Although "social isolation" protects the life and health of Vietnamese citizens from the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, it also triggers massive reductions in the economic activities of the country. Objective: our study aimed to identify negative impacts of COVID-19 on occupations of Vietnamese people during the first national lockdown, including the quality and quantity of jobs as well as adverse problems at work due to COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study using web-based platforms was conducted during the first time of social isolation in Vietnam at the beginning of April 2020. We utilized a respondent-driven sampling technique to select 1423 respondents from 63 cities and provinces over Vietnam. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to define sub-domains of perceived impacts of COVID-19 on occupations. Findings: Approximately two-thirds of respondents reported decreases in their income (61.6%), and 28.2% reported that their income deficit was 40% and above. The percentage of female individuals having decreased revenue due to COVID-19 was higher than that of male respondents (65.2% and 54.7%, respectively). "Worry that colleagues exposed to COVID-19 patients" and "Being alienated because employment-related to COVID-19" accounted for the highest score in each factor. Compared to healthcare workers, being self-employed/unemployed/retired were less likely to suffer from "Increased workload and conflicts due to COVID-19" and "Disclosure and discrimination related to COVID-19 work exposure." Conclusion: Our study revealed a drastic reduction in both the quality and quantity of working, as well as the increased fear and stigmatization of exposure to COVID-19 at workplaces. Health protection and economic support are immediate targets that should be focused on when implementing policies and regulations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Economic Recession/statistics & numerical data , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Control, Formal/methods , Vietnam/epidemiology , Work Performance , Workload/statistics & numerical data
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(10)2020 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324629

ABSTRACT

Health personnel and community workers are at the front line of the COVID-19 emergency response and need to be equipped with adequate knowledge related to epidemics for an effective response. This study aimed to identify the coverage of COVID-19 health information via different sources accessed by health workers and community workers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study using a web-based survey was carried out from January to February 2020 in Vietnam. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used for recruiting participants. We utilized the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. A higher percentage of participants knew about "Clinical and pathogen characteristics of COVID-19", compared to "Regulations and policies related to COVID-19". The percentage of participants accessing the information on "Guidelines and policies on prevention and control of COVID-19" was the lowest, especially among medical students. "Mass media and peer-educators" channels had a higher score of accessing COVID-19 information, compared to "Organizations/ agencies/ associations" sources. Participants consumed most of their COVID-19 information via "Internet, online newspapers, social networks". Our findings indicate an urgency to re-design training programs and communication activities for a more effective dissemination of information related to the COVID-19 epidemic or epidemics in general.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mass Media , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam , Young Adult
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