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1.
J Infect Dis ; 225(1): 5-9, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604603

ABSTRACT

From December 2020 to June 2021, 1654487 blood donors were tested for antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein, and 1028547 (62.17%) were reactive. A rapid increase in prevalence was due to vaccination. Among a subset of 1567446 donors, 729771 (46.56%) reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, of whom 633769 (86.84%) were S1-antibody reactive only in response to vaccination and 68269 (9.35%) were reactive to both S1 and nucleocapsid in response to prior infection; the remainder were not reactive to either antibody. Among the 837675 (53.44%) donors who did not report vaccination, 210022 (25.07%) had reactivity to both antibodies and 29446 (3.52%) to S1 only.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
J Infect Dis ; 225(1): 5-9, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462361

ABSTRACT

From December 2020 to June 2021, 1654487 blood donors were tested for antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein, and 1028547 (62.17%) were reactive. A rapid increase in prevalence was due to vaccination. Among a subset of 1567446 donors, 729771 (46.56%) reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, of whom 633769 (86.84%) were S1-antibody reactive only in response to vaccination and 68269 (9.35%) were reactive to both S1 and nucleocapsid in response to prior infection; the remainder were not reactive to either antibody. Among the 837675 (53.44%) donors who did not report vaccination, 210022 (25.07%) had reactivity to both antibodies and 29446 (3.52%) to S1 only.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
Transfus Med Rev ; 35(3): 1-7, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331265

ABSTRACT

In the United States, many blood collection organizations initiated programs to test all blood donors for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, as a measure to increase donations and to assist in the identification of potential donors of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). As a result, it was possible to investigate the characteristics of healthy blood donors who had previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. We report the findings from all blood donations collected by the American Red Cross, representing 40% of the national blood supply covering 44 States, in order to characterize the seroepidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection among blood donors in the United States, prior to authorized vaccine availability. We performed an observational cohort study from June 15th to November 30th, 2020 on a population of 1.531 million blood donors tested for antibodies to the S1 spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by person, place, time, ABO group and dynamics of test reactivity, with additional information from a survey of a subset of those with reactive test results. The overall seroreactivity was 4.22% increasing from 1.18 to 9.67% (June 2020 - November 2020); estimated incidence was 11.6 per hundred person-years, 1.86-times higher than that based upon reported cases in the general population over the same period. In multivariable analyses, seroreactivity was highest in the Midwest (5.21%), followed by the South (4.43%), West (3.43%) and Northeast (2.90%). Seroreactivity was highest among donors aged 18-24 (Odds Ratio 3.02 [95% Confidence Interval 2.80-3.26] vs age >55), African-Americans and Hispanics (1.50 [1.24-1.80] and 2.12 [1.89-2.36], respectively, vs Caucasian). Group O frequency was 51.5% among nonreactive, but 46.1% among seroreactive donors (P< .0001). Of surveyed donors, 45% reported no COVID-19-related symptoms, but 73% among those unaware of testing. Signal levels of antibody tests were stable over 120 days or more and there was little evidence of reinfection. Evaluation of a large population of healthy, voluntary blood donors provided evidence of widespread and increasing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and demonstrated that at least 45% of those previously infected were asymptomatic. Epidemiologic findings were similar to those among clinically reported cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1987-1997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796294

ABSTRACT

Risk assessments of transfusion-transmitted emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are complicated by the fact that blood donors' demographics and behaviors can be different from the general population. Therefore, when assessing potential blood donor exposure to EIDs, the use of general population characteristics, such as U.S. travel statistics, may invoke uncertainties that result in inaccurate estimates of blood donor exposure. This may, in turn, lead to the creation of donor deferral policies that do not match actual risk. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article reports on the development of a system to rapidly assess EID risks for a nationally representative portion of the U.S. blood donor population. To assess the effectiveness of this system, a test survey was developed and deployed to a statistically representative sample frame of blood donors from five blood collecting organizations. Donors were directed to an online survey to ascertain their recent travel and potential exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). RESULTS: A total of 7128 responses were received from 54 256 invitations. The age-adjusted estimated total number of blood donors potentially exposed to MERS-CoV was approximately 15 640 blood donors compared to a lower U.S. general population-based estimate of 9610 blood donors. CONCLUSION: The structured donor demographic sample-based data provided an assessment of blood donors' potential exposure to an emerging pathogen that was 63% larger than the U.S. population-based estimate. This illustrates the need for tailored blood donor-based EID risk assessments that provide more specific demographic risk intelligence and can inform appropriate regulatory decision making.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Blood-Borne Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Risk Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood-Borne Infections/blood , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Blood-Borne Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/blood , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Sample Size , Sampling Studies , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Transfus Med Rev ; 34(2): 73-74, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998
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