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1.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150095

ABSTRACT

Objectives The emergence of the Alpha variant of novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) is a concerning issue but their clinical implications have not been investigated fully. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study to compare severity and mortality caused by the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) with the one caused by the wild type as a control from December 2020 to March 2021, using whole-genome sequencing. 28-day mortality and other clinically important outcomes were evaluated. Results Infections caused by the Alpha variant were associated with an increase in the use of oxygen (43.4% vs 26.3%. p = 0.017), high flow nasal cannula (21.2% vs 4.0%, p = 0.0007), mechanical ventilation (16.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.049), ICU care (30.3% vs 14.1%, p = 0.01) and the length of hospital stay (17 vs 10 days, p = 0.031). More patients with the Alpha variant received medications such as dexamethasone. However, the duration of each modality did not differ between the 2 groups. Likewise, there was no difference in 28-day mortality between the 2 groups (12% vs 8%, p = 0.48), even after multiple sensitivity analyses, including propensity score analysis. Conclusion The Alpha variant was associated with a severe form of COVID-19, compared with the non-Alpha wild type, but might not be associated with higher mortality.

2.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and the optimal timing of vaccine administration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) recipients remains inadequately investigated. We examine the effectiveness and safety of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in allo-HSCT recipients. METHOD: This prospective observational study included 44 allo-HSCT recipients and 38 healthy volunteers. The proportion of subjects acquiring anti-S1 IgG antibodies were considered as the primary endpoint. The occurrence of adverse events after vaccination and objective deterioration of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were defined as secondary endpoints. In addition, we compared the geometric mean titers (GMT) of anti-S1 antibody titers in subgroups based on time interval between transplantation and vaccination. RESULTS: A humoral response to the vaccine was evident in 40 (91%) patients and all 38 healthy controls. The GMT of anti-S1 titers in patients and healthy controls were 277 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 120-643) BAU/mL and 532 (95% CI 400-708) BAU/mL, respectively. (p = 0.603). A short time interval between transplantation and vaccination (≤6 months) was associated with low anti-S1 IgG antibody titers. No serious adverse events and deterioration of chronic GVHD were observed. Only one case of new development of mild chronic GVHD was recorded. CONCLUSION: Messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccines induce humoral responses in allo-HSCT recipients and can be administered safely.

3.
Respir Investig ; 60(5): 694-703, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from saving the lives of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), recovery from the sequelae of prolonged MV (PMV) is an emerging issue.c METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among consecutive adult COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Kobe, Japan, between March 3, 2020, and January 31, 2021, and received invasive MV. Clinical outcomes included in-hospital mortality and recovery from COVID-19 in survivors regarding organ dysfunction, respiratory symptoms, and functional status at discharge. We compared survivors' outcomes with MV durations of >14 days and ≤14 days. RESULTS: We included 85 patients with a median age of 69 years (interquartile range, 64-75 years); 76 (89%) patients had at least 1 comorbidity, 72 (85%) were non-frail, and 79 (93%) were functionally independent before COVID-19 infection. Eighteen patients (21%) died during hospitalization. At discharge, 59/67 survivors (88%) no longer required respiratory support, 50 (75%) complained of dyspnea, and 40 (60%) were functionally independent. Of the survivors, 23 patients receiving MV for >14 days had a worse recovery from COVID-19 at discharge compared with those on MV for ≤14 days, as observed using the Barthel index (median: 35 [5-65] vs. 100 [85-100]), ICU mobility scale (8 [5-9] vs. 10 [10-10]), and functional oral intake scale (3 [1-7] vs. 7 [7-7]) (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Although four-fifths of the patients survived and >50% of survivors demonstrated clinically important recovery in organ function and functional status during hospitalization, PMV was related to poor recovery from COVID-19 at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Patient-Centered Care , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(9): e24629, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) is associated with various diseases. Several studies of CAS associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported hemolytic anemia and thrombosis; however, the clinical significance of cold agglutinins (CA) in patients with COVID-19 is unclear. Here, we present two cases of CA identified in the context of COVID-19 without hemolytic anemia and clotting. CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION: Two patients with no known risk factors for CA were diagnosed with COVID-19; peripheral blood smears reveal red blood cells (RBCs) agglutination. These patients showed a high CA titer. We confirmed retrospectively that the CA was an anti-I antibody. The two COVID-19 cases with a high CA titer showed no hemolysis or thrombosis. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is known to cause CAS, but not all patients who have a high CA titer show hemolysis. Coagulation abnormalities are documented in severe COVID-19 cases. Although CA increases the risk of thrombosis in those with lymphoproliferative diseases, the role of anti-I antibodies in COVID-19 is unclear. The impact of CAS on clinical presentations in COVID-19 remains a matter of verification. CONCLUSIONS: A high CA titer was identified in COVID-19 patients without hemolytic anemia and clotting. Anti-I antibodies were identified. Further studies are required to clarify the pathophysiology of CA in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Anemia, Hemolytic , COVID-19 , Antibodies , Cryoglobulins , Hemolysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
5.
Japanese Journal of Infection Prevention and Control ; 36(6):307-315, 2021.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1869903
7.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 501-508, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities have poor prognoses. Our aim was to identify the impact of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is associated with mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome, on the prognoses of patients with COVID-19 and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. METHODS: Among 1518 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 enrolled in the CLAVIS-COVID (Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and/or Risk Factors study), 515 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities were analyzed. Patients were divided into tertiles based on LDH levels at admission [tertile 1 (T1), <235 U/L; tertile 2 (T2), 235-355 U/L; and tertile 3 (T3); ≥356 U/L]. We investigated the impact of LDH levels on the in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.4 ± 30.0 years, and 65.3% were male. There were significantly more in-hospital deaths in T3 than in T1 and T2 [n = 50 (29.2%) vs. n = 15 (8.7%), and n = 24 (14.0%), respectively; p < 0.001]. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, comorbidities, vital signs, and laboratory data including D-dimer and high-sensitivity troponin showed T3 was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-6.13; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: High serum LDH levels at the time of admission are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19 and known cardiovascular disease and may aid in triage of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(48): e28066, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550618

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We conducted a study to estimate the seroprevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Kobe, Japan with positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) rate of 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3%-4.6%) in April 2020. Because there were large concerns about the spread of COVID-19 among citizens thereafter, we conduct a follow-up cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence, and we also added a validation study using a different assay.We conducted cross-sectional serologic testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody using 1000 samples from patients at outpatient settings who visited the clinic from May 26 to June 7, 2020, stratified by the decade of age and sex. We used both Kurabo and Abbott serology assays to identify IgG against SARS-CoV-2.There were 18 and 2 positive IgG among 1000 serum samples using Kurabo and Abbott serology assays, respectively (1.8%, 95% CI 1.1%-2.8%, and 0.2%, 95% CI 0.02%-0.7% respectively). By applying the latter figure to the census of Kobe City (population: 1,518,870), it is estimated that the number of people with positive IgG is 3038 (95% CI: 304-10,632) while a total of 285 patients were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing at the end of the study period. Assuming Abbott assay as the reference, Kurabo assay had calculated sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 98.4% respectively. Age and sex adjusted prevalence of positivity was calculated to be 0.17%.We found a lower seroprevalence than 2 months before in Kobe city although the figures were still higher than those detected by PCR. Kurabo assay showed more false positives than true positives despite reasonable sensitivity and specificity, due to low prevalence in Kobe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
9.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11: 100747, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been affecting many people on earth and our society. Japan is known to have relatively smaller number of its infections as well as deaths among developed nations. However, accurate prevalence of COVID-19 in Japan remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using 1000 samples from patients at outpatient settings who visited the clinic from March 31 to April 7, 2020, stratified by the decade of age and sex. RESULTS: There were 33 positive IgG among 1000 serum samples (3.3%, 95%CI: 2.3-4.6%). By applying this figure to the census of Kobe City (population: 1,518,870), it is estimated that the number of people with positive IgG be 50,123 (95%CI: 34,934-69,868). Age and sex adjusted prevalence of positivity was calculated 2.7% (95%CI: 1.8-3.9%), and the estimated number of people with positive IgG was 40,999 (95%CI: 27,333-59,221). These numbers were 396 to 858-fold more than confirmed cases with PCR testing in Kobe City. CONCLUSIONS: Our cross-sectional serological study suggests that the number of people with seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Kobe, Japan is far more than the confirmed cases by PCR testing.

10.
J Anesth ; 35(2): 213-221, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042487

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a great burden on critical care services worldwide. Data regarding critically ill COVID-19 patients and their demand of critical care services outside of initial COVID-19 epicenters are lacking. This study described clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients and the capacity of a COVID-19-dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) in Kobe, Japan. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to a 14-bed COVID-19-dedicated ICU in Kobe between March 3, 2020 and June 21, 2020. Clinical and daily ICU occupancy data were obtained from electrical medical records. The last follow-up day was June 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of 32 patients included, the median hospital follow-up period was 27 (interquartile range 19-50) days. The median age was 68 (57-76) years; 23 (72%) were men and 25 (78%) had at least one comorbidity. Nineteen (59%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation for a median duration of 14 (8-27) days. Until all patients were discharged from the ICU on June 5, 2020, the median daily ICU occupancy was 50% (36-71%). As of June 28, 2020, six (19%) died during hospitalization. Of 26 (81%) survivors, 23 (72%) were discharged from the hospital and three (9%) remained in the hospital. CONCLUSION: During the first months of the outbreak in Kobe, most critically ill patients were men aged ≥ 60 years with at least one comorbidity and on mechanical ventilation; the ICU capacity was not strained, and the case-fatality rate was 19%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Japan , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 57-61, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing significant damage to many nations. For mitigating its risk, Japan called on all elementary, junior high, and high schools nationwide to close beginning March 1, 2020. However, its effectiveness in decreasing the disease burden has not been investigated. METHODS: We used daily data of the COVID-19 and coronavirus infection incidence in Japan until March 31, 2020. Time-series analyses were conducted using the Bayesian method. Local linear trend models with interventional effects were constructed for the number of newly reported cases of COVID-19, including asymptomatic infections. We considered that the effects of the intervention started to appear nine days after the school closure. RESULTS: The intervention of school closure did not appear to decrease the incidence of coronavirus infection. If the effectiveness of school closure began on March 9, the mean coefficient α for the effectiveness of the measure was calculated to be 0.08 (95% confidence interval -0.36 to 0.65), and the actual reported cases were more than predicted, yet with a rather wide confidence interval. Sensitivity analyses using different dates also did not demonstrate the effectiveness of the school closure. DISCUSSION: School closure carried out in Japan did not show any mitigating effect on the transmission of novel coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Schools , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
12.
The Japanese Journal of Physical Therapy ; 54(7):819-826, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-684382

ABSTRACT

What was going on at the scene of the confrontation with the novel coronavirus infection? What can be done to prepare for the second wave?

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