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1.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese rapid/living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCG. METHODS: The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (version 4.0; released on September 9, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ2), corticosteroids (CQ4), tocilizumab (CQ5), anticoagulants (CQ7), baricitinib (CQ8), and casirivimab/imdevimab (CQ9). Two CQs (hydroxychloroquine [CQ3] and ciclesonide [CQ6]) were retrieved in this updated version. RECOMMENDATIONS: Favipiravir is not suggested for all patients with COVID-19 (GRADE 2C). Remdesivir is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Corticosteroids are recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and for patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their administration is not recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). Tocilizumab is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Anticoagulant administration is recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (good practice statement). Baricitinib is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2C). Casirivimab/imdevimab is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). We hope that these updated clinical practice guidelines will help medical professionals involved in the care of patients with COVID-19.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475880
3.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 177-179, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296336
4.
Acute Med Surg ; : e664, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222595

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese Rapid/Living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCGs. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (ver. 3.1) (released on March 30, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ-2), hydroxychloroquine (CQ-3), corticosteroids (CQ-4), tocilizumab (CQ-5), ciclesonide (CQ-6), and anticoagulants (CQ-7). Favipiravir is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 2C); remdesivir for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B); hydroxychloroquine is not recommended for all COVID-19 patients (GRADE 1B); corticosteroids are recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator management/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their administration is not recommended for mild COVID-19 patients not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B); tocilizumab is recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B); and anticoagulant therapy for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator management/intensive care (GRADE 2C). We hope that these clinical practice guidelines will aid medical professionals involved in the care of COVID-19 patients.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 565010, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186809

ABSTRACT

Complication in acute kidney injury (AKI) is significantly associated with developing acute respiratory failure (ARF), while ARF is one of the most important risks for AKI. These data suggest AKI and ARF may synergistically worsen the outcomes of critically ill patients and these organ injuries may not occur independently. Organ crosstalk between the kidney and the lung has been investigated by using animal models so far. This review will focus on innate immune response and neutrophil activation among the mechanisms that contribute to this organ crosstalk. AKI increased the blood level of an inflammatory mediator in high-mobility group box 1, which induces an innate immune reaction via toll-like receptor 4. The remarkable infiltration of neutrophils to the lung was observed in animal AKI models. IL-6 and IL-8 have been demonstrated to contribute to pulmonary neutrophil activation in AKI. In addition, the formation of a neutrophil extracellular trap was also observed in the lung after the exposure of renal ischemia reperfusion in the animal model. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether targeting innate immune response and neutrophil activation will be useful for developing new therapeutics that could improve multiple organ failure in critically ill patients.

6.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0181, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752139
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