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J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(7): 1906-1917, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704906


BACKGROUND: Morbidity and death due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experienced by older adults in nursing homes have been well described, but COVID-19's impact on community-living older adults is less studied. Similarly, the previous ambulatory care experience of such patients has rarely been considered in studies of COVID-19 risks and outcomes. METHODS: To investigate the relationship of advanced age (65+), on risk factors associated with COVID-19 outcomes in community-living elders, we identified an electronic health records cohort of older patients aged 65+ with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with and without an ambulatory care visit in the past 24 months (n = 47,219) in the New York City (NYC) academic medical institutions and the NYC public hospital system from January 2020 to February 2021. The main outcomes are COVID-19 hospitalization; severe outcomes/Intensive care unit (ICU), intubation, dialysis, stroke, in-hospital death), and in-hospital death. The exposures include demographic characteristics, and those with ambulatory records, comorbidities, frailty, and laboratory results. RESULTS: The 31,770 patients with an ambulatory history had a median age of 74 years; were 47.4% male, 24.3% non-Hispanic white, 23.3% non-Hispanic black, and 18.4% Hispanic. With increasing age, the odds ratios and attributable fractions of sex, race-ethnicity, comorbidities, and biomarkers decreased except for dementia and frailty (Hospital Frailty Risk Score). Patients without ambulatory care histories, compared to those with, had significantly higher adjusted rates of COVID-19 hospitalization and severe outcomes, with strongest effect in the oldest group. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of community-dwelling older adults, we provided evidence of age-specific risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and severe outcomes. Future research should explore the impact of frailty and dementia in severe COVID-19 outcomes in community-living older adults, and the role of engagement in ambulatory care in mitigating severe disease.

COVID-19 , Dementia , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 317-325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582749


OBJECTIVES: Data on the health burden of COVID-19 among Asian American people of various ethnic subgroups remain limited. We examined COVID-19 outcomes of people of various Asian ethnic subgroups and other racial and ethnic groups in an urban safety net hospital system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 85 328 adults aged ≥18 tested for COVID-19 at New York City's public hospital system from March 1 through May 31, 2020. We examined COVID-19 positivity, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as demographic characteristics and comorbidities known to worsen COVID-19 outcomes. We conducted adjusted multivariable regression analyses examining racial and ethnic disparities in mortality. RESULTS: Of 9971 Asian patients (11.7% of patients overall), 48.2% were South Asian, 22.2% were Chinese, and 29.6% were in other Asian ethnic groups. South Asian patients had the highest rates of COVID-19 positivity (30.8%) and hospitalization (51.6%) among Asian patients, second overall only to Hispanic (32.1% and 45.8%, respectively) and non-Hispanic Black (27.5% and 57.5%, respectively) patients. Chinese patients had a mortality rate of 35.7%, highest of all racial and ethnic groups. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, only Chinese patients had significantly higher odds of mortality than non-Hispanic White patients (odds ratio = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Asian American people, particularly those of South Asian and Chinese descent, bear a substantial and disproportionate health burden of COVID-19. These findings underscore the need for improved data collection and reporting and public health efforts to mitigate disparities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among these groups.

Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnic and Racial Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety-net Providers , Young Adult
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243027, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983906


BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC) bore the greatest burden of COVID-19 in the United States early in the pandemic. In this case series, we describe characteristics and outcomes of racially and ethnically diverse patients tested for and hospitalized with COVID-19 in New York City's public hospital system. METHODS: We reviewed the electronic health records of all patients who received a SARS-CoV-2 test between March 5 and April 9, 2020, with follow up through April 16, 2020. The primary outcomes were a positive test, hospitalization, and death. Demographics and comorbidities were also assessed. RESULTS: 22254 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2. 13442 (61%) were positive; among those, the median age was 52.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 39.5-64.5), 7481 (56%) were male, 3518 (26%) were Black, and 4593 (34%) were Hispanic. Nearly half (4669, 46%) had at least one chronic disease (27% diabetes, 30% hypertension, and 21% cardiovascular disease). Of those testing positive, 6248 (46%) were hospitalized. The median age was 61.6 years (IQR 49.7-72.9); 3851 (62%) were male, 1950 (31%) were Black, and 2102 (34%) were Hispanic. More than half (3269, 53%) had at least one chronic disease (33% diabetes, 37% hypertension, 24% cardiovascular disease, 11% chronic kidney disease). 1724 (28%) hospitalized patients died. The median age was 71.0 years (IQR 60.0, 80.9); 1087 (63%) were male, 506 (29%) were Black, and 528 (31%) were Hispanic. Chronic diseases were common (35% diabetes, 37% hypertension, 28% cardiovascular disease, 15% chronic kidney disease). Male sex, older age, diabetes, cardiac history, and chronic kidney disease were significantly associated with testing positive, hospitalization, and death. Racial/ethnic disparities were observed across all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This is the largest and most racially/ethnically diverse case series of patients tested and hospitalized for COVID-19 in New York City to date. Our findings highlight disparities in outcomes that can inform prevention and testing recommendations.

COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Hospitals, Public , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , New York City/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors