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1.
Am J Prev Med ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653999

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The heightened risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality in prisons is well documented, but COVID-19's impact on all-cause mortality in incarcerated populations has not yet been studied. This study analyzed mortality records from the Florida State Department of Corrections prison system population to evaluate the impact COVID-19 had on all-cause mortality and compare mortality rates and life expectancy with that of the overall state of Florida population. METHODS: Population age and sex data for Florida State Department of Corrections were ascertained from the Florida State Department of Corrections Offender Based Information System. Death data by age, sex, and cause of death were acquired from medical records and Florida State Department of Corrections offender reports. The state of Florida demographic and death data were collected from the Census Bureau, Florida Department of Health, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age- and sex-standardized life table measures were calculated, and COVID-19 contributions to changes in life expectancy were assessed using Arriaga's decomposition. RESULTS: The standardized mortality rate in the Florida State Department of Corrections population increased by 45% between 2019 and 2020, causing an overall 4.0-year decline in life expectancy. Over the same period, the state of Florida population's standardized mortality increased by 19%, resulting in an overall 2.7-year decline. Within the Florida State Department of Corrections population, life expectancy decline could be attributed exclusively to COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The state of Florida prison population saw a substantial increase in mortality driven solely by COVID-19 mortality, leading to an overall 4-year decline in life expectancy. Given the findings and continued threat of COVID-19 outbreaks, Florida State Department of Corrections and other prison systems should strive to increase vaccination uptake, decrease prison populations, and commit to COVID-19 data transparency.

2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Several analyses have highlighted racial and ethnic disparities related to COVID-19 health outcomes across the United States. Less focus has been placed on more localized contexts, such as carceral settings, where racial and ethnic inequities in COVID-19 health outcomes also exist, but the proximal drivers of inequality are different. In this study, we analyzed mortality rates among incarcerated people in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) to assess racial and ethnic differences in COVID-19 mortality. We obtained monthly demographic and mortality information of the TDCJ population from April 1, 2019 to March 31, 2021 from TDCJ monthly reports and open record requests filed by the Texas Justice Initiative. We estimated the risk of COVID-19 mortality for the Hispanic and Black population relative to the White population using a Bayesian regression framework, adjusting for sex and age. In the first 12 months of the pandemic, Hispanic and Black all-cause mortality rates were higher than that of the White population, reversing the pattern observed the 12 months prior. Adjusted risk of COVID-19 mortality relative to the White population was 1.96 (CI 1.32–2.93) for the Hispanic population and 1.66 (CI 1.10–2.52) for the Black population. We find that COVID-19 mortality has disproportionately impacted Hispanic and Black individuals within the TDCJ population. As the proximal mechanisms which drive these inequalities are likely different than those which lead to racial inequalities in the non-incarcerated populations, future studies should look to assess and address the specific drivers of COVID-19 related disparities in carceral settings.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 473-477, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168276

ABSTRACT

Incarcerated and detained persons are at increased risk for acquiring COVID-19. However, little is known about their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. During September-December 2020, residents in three prisons and 13 jails in four states were surveyed regarding their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination and their reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy or refusal. Among 5,110 participants, 2,294 (44.9%) said they would receive a COVID-19 vaccination, 498 (9.8%) said they would hesitate to receive it, and 2,318 (45.4%) said they would refuse to receive it. Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was lowest among Black/African American (Black) (36.7%; 510 of 1,390) persons, participants aged 18-29 years (38.5%; 583 of 1,516), and those who lived in jails versus prisons (43.7%; 1,850 of 4,232). Common reasons reported for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were waiting for more information (54.8%) and efficacy or safety concerns (31.0%). The most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination refusal was distrust of health care, correctional, or government personnel or institutions (20.1%). Public health interventions to improve vaccine confidence and trust are needed to increase vaccination acceptance by incarcerated or detained persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(6): 840-844, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095810

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous research has found COVID-19 cases to be disproportionately prevalent among U.S. prisoners. Similar to prisoners, prison staff experience ventilation and social distancing hazards and may have limited access to testing, paid sick leave, personal protective equipment, and other workplace protections. Yet, systematic case surveillance among prison staff remains unexplored. The objective of this study is to document the trends in COVID-19 cases among U.S. correctional staff relative to those among prisoners and the U.S. METHODS: Reports of COVID-19 cases among prisoners and staff were collected from state Departments of Corrections and the Federal Bureau of Prisons from March 31, 2020 to November 4, 2020. In November 2020, this series of aggregated case records was linked to population estimates to calculate COVID-19 period prevalence among prison staff and residents in comparison with the U.S. population trends. RESULTS: Within the prison environment, COVID-19 case burden was initially higher among staff than among prisoners in 89% of jurisdictions. Case prevalence escalated more quickly among prisoners but has remained persistently high among staff. By November 4, 2020, COVID-19 was 3.2 times more prevalent among prison staff than among the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: Prison staff experienced substantially higher COVID-19 case prevalence than the U.S. population overall. Across prison staff and resident populations, cases were rapidly rising in November 2020, indicating poor outbreak containment within the prison environment. An Emergency Temporary Standard, issued by federal and state Occupational Safety and Health Administrations, and priority vaccination are urgently needed to reduce COVID-19 occupational risk. Reduced occupational transmission of COVID-19 will benefit workers, incarcerated people, and community members alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2
7.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-6101
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