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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 216, 2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether pre-existing macrovascular complications (ischemic heart disease, stroke or peripheral artery disease) are associated with health outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted cohort studies of adults with pre-existing diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in the UK, France, and Spain during the early phase of the pandemic (between March 2020-October 2020). Logistic regression models adjusted for demographic factors and other comorbidities were used to determine associations between previous macrovascular disease and relevant clinical outcomes: mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) during the hospitalization. Output from individual logistic regression models for each cohort was combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 4,106 (60.4%) individuals. Of these, 1,652 (40.2%) had any prior macrovascular disease of whom 28.5% of patients died. Mortality was higher for people with compared to those without previous macrovascular disease (37.7% vs 22.4%). The combined crude odds ratio (OR) for previous macrovascular disease and mortality for all four cohorts was 2.12 (95% CI 1.83-2.45 with an I2 of 60%, reduced after adjustments for age, sex, type of diabetes, hypertension, microvascular disease, ethnicity, and BMI to adjusted OR 1.53 [95% CI 1.29-1.81]) for the three cohorts. Further analysis revealed that ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were the main contributors of adverse outcomes. However, proportions of people admitted to ICU (adjOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.31-0.75], I2 60%) and the use of IMV during hospitalization (adjOR 0.52 [95% CI 0.40-0.68], I2 37%) were significantly lower for people with previous macrovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: This large multinational study of people with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19 demonstrates that previous macrovascular disease is associated with higher mortality and lower proportions admitted to ICU and treated with IMV during hospitalization suggesting selective admission criteria. Our findings highlight the importance correctly assess the prognosis and intensive monitoring in this high-risk group of patients and emphasize the need to design specific public health programs aimed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Myocardial Ischemia , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 973918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065578

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly expanded worldwide. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. Small studies explored the use of Krebs von de Lungen-6 circulating serum levels (sKL-6) as a prognostic biomarker of the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at a large study to determine the prognostic value of sKL-6 in predicting evolving trends in COVID-19. We prospectively analyzed the characteristics of 836 patients with COVID-19 with mild lung disease on admission. sKL-6 was obtained in all patients at least at baseline and compared among patients with or without respiratory worsening. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cutoff level. A total of 159 (19%) patients developed respiratory worsening during hospitalization. Baseline sKL-6 levels were not higher in patients who had respiratory worsening (median {IQR} 315.5 {209-469} vs. 306 {214-423} U/ml p = 0.38). The last sKL-6 and the change between baseline and last sKL-6 were higher in the respiratory worsening group (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The best sKL-6 cutoff point for respiratory worsening was 497 U/ml (area under the curve 0.52; 23% sensitivity and 85% specificity). sKL-6 was not found to be an independent predictor of respiratory worsening. A conditional inference tree (CTREE) was not useful to discriminate patients at risk of worsening. We found that sKL-6 had a low sensibility to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia and may not be of use to assess the risk of present respiratory worsening in inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998538

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly expanded worldwide. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. Small studies explored the use of Krebs von de Lungen-6 circulating serum levels (sKL-6) as a prognostic biomarker of the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at a large study to determine the prognostic value of sKL-6 in predicting evolving trends in COVID-19. We prospectively analyzed the characteristics of 836 patients with COVID-19 with mild lung disease on admission. sKL-6 was obtained in all patients at least at baseline and compared among patients with or without respiratory worsening. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cutoff level. A total of 159 (19%) patients developed respiratory worsening during hospitalization. Baseline sKL-6 levels were not higher in patients who had respiratory worsening (median {IQR} 315.5 {209–469} vs. 306 {214–423} U/ml p = 0.38). The last sKL-6 and the change between baseline and last sKL-6 were higher in the respiratory worsening group (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The best sKL-6 cutoff point for respiratory worsening was 497 U/ml (area under the curve 0.52;23% sensitivity and 85% specificity). sKL-6 was not found to be an independent predictor of respiratory worsening. A conditional inference tree (CTREE) was not useful to discriminate patients at risk of worsening. We found that sKL-6 had a low sensibility to predict respiratory worsening in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia and may not be of use to assess the risk of present respiratory worsening in inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(4)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) after immunosuppressive therapies is scarce. Our aim is to determine whether the mRNA-1273 vaccine is safe and able to induce humoral and cellular responses in patients with MG. METHODS: We performed an observational, longitudinal, prospective study including 100 patients with MG of a referral center for MG in our country, conducted from April 2021 to November 2021 during the vaccination campaign. The mRNA-1273 vaccine was scheduled for all participants. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 3 months after a second dose. Clinical changes in MG were measured using the MG activities of daily life score at baseline and 1 week after the first and second doses. A surveillance of all symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was conducted throughout the study. Humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination were assessed using a spike-antibody ELISA and interferon gamma release assay in plasma. The primary outcomes were clinically significant changes in MG symptoms after vaccination, adverse events (AEs), and seroconversion and T-cell immune response rates. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients completed the full vaccination schedule, and 98 had 2 blood samples taken. A statistically significant worsening of symptoms was identified after the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, but this was not clinically relevant. Mild AEs occurred in 14 patients after the first dose and in 21 patients after the second dose. Eighty-seven patients developed a humoral response and 72 patients showed a T-cell response after vaccination. A combined therapy with prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs correlated with a lower seroconversion ratio (OR = 5.97, 95% CI 1.46-24.09, p = 0.015) and a lower T-cell response ratio (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.13-7.13, p = 0.024). DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that the mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 is safe in patients with MG and show no negative impact on the disease course. Patients achieved high humoral and cellular immune response levels. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that patients with MG receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine did not show clinical worsening after vaccination and that most of the patients achieved high cellular or immune response levels.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 904686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933689

ABSTRACT

Two years after the appearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causal agent of the current global pandemic, it is time to analyze the evolution of the immune protection that infection and vaccination provide. Cellular immunity plays an important role in limiting disease severity and the resolution of infection. The early appearance, breadth and magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response has been correlated with disease severity and it has been thought that T cell responses may be sufficient to clear infection with minimal disease in COVID-19 patients with X-linked or autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia. However, our knowledge of the phenotypic and functional diversity of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, CD4+ T helper cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh), which play a critical role in infection control as well as long-term protection, is still evolving. It has been described how CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes interrupt viral replication by secreting antiviral cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and directly killing infected cells, negatively correlating with stages of disease progression. In addition, CD4+ T helper cells have been reported to be key pieces, leading, coordinating and ultimately regulating antiviral immunity. For instance, in some more severe COVID-19 cases a dysregulated CD4+ T cell signature may contribute to the greater production of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for pathogenic inflammation. Here we discuss how cellular immunity is the axis around which the rest of the immune system components revolve, since it orchestrates and leads antiviral response by regulating the inflammatory cascade and, as a consequence, the innate immune system, as well as promoting a correct humoral response through CD4+ Tfh cells. This review also analyses the critical role of cellular immunity in modulating the development of high-affinity neutralizing antibodies and germinal center B cell differentiation in memory and long-lived antibody secreting cells. Finally, since there is currently a high percentage of vaccinated population and, in some cases, vaccine booster doses are even being administered in certain countries, we have also summarized newer approaches to long-lasting protective immunity and the cross-protection of cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , Cytokines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 640, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900548

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathophysiology is currently not fully understood, reliable prognostic factors remain elusive, and few specific therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this scenario, availability of biomarkers is a priority. MS-based Proteomics techniques were used to profile the proteome of 81 plasma samples extracted in four consecutive days from 23 hospitalized COVID-19 associated pneumonia patients. Samples from 10 subjects that reached a critical condition during their hospital stay and 10 matched non-severe controls were drawn before the administration of any COVID-19 specific treatment and used to identify potential biomarkers of COVID-19 prognosis. Additionally, we compared the proteome of five patients before and after glucocorticoids and tocilizumab treatment, to assess the changes induced by the therapy on our selected candidates. Forty-two proteins were differentially expressed between patients' evolution groups at 10% FDR. Twelve proteins showed lower levels in critical patients (fold-changes 1.20-3.58), of which OAS3 and COG5 found their expression increased after COVID-19 specific therapy. Most of the 30 proteins over-expressed in critical patients (fold-changes 1.17-4.43) were linked to inflammation, coagulation, lipids metabolism, complement or immunoglobulins, and a third of them decreased their expression after treatment. We propose a set of candidate proteins for biomarkers of COVID-19 prognosis at the time of hospital admission. The study design employed is distinctive from previous works and aimed to optimize the chances of the candidates to be validated in confirmatory studies and, eventually, to play a useful role in the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Proteome
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(8): 2265-2273, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports on the impact of some antiretrovirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of tenofovir as either tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated clinical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We conducted a propensity score-matched analysis in the prospective PISCIS cohort of PLWH (n = 14 978) in Catalonia, Spain. We used adjusted Cox regression models to assess the association between tenofovir and SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. RESULTS: After propensity score-matching, SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis rates were similar in TAF/FTC versus ABC/3TC recipients (11.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.256); lower among TDF/FTC versus ABC/3TC recipients (9.6% versus 12.8%, P = 0.021); and lower among TDF/FTC versus TAF/FTC recipients (9.6% versus 12.1%, P = 0.012). In well-adjusted logistic regression models, TAF/FTC was no longer associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.04] or hospitalization (aOR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.60-1.43). When compared with ABC/3TC, TDF/FTC was not associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (aOR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.04) or hospitalization (aOR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.15-1.70). TDF/FTC was not associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (aOR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.04) or associated hospitalization (aOR 0.33; 95% CI, 0.10-1.07) compared with TAF/FTC. CONCLUSIONS: TAF/FTC or TDF/FTC were not associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis rates or associated hospitalizations among PLWH. TDF/FTC users had baseline characteristics intrinsically associated with more benign SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes. Tenofovir exposure should not modify any preventive or therapeutic SARS-CoV-2 infection management.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
8.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 60(3): 507-520, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829437

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). Pulmonary infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza, and Staphylococcus aureus remain common. One-third of PLWH worldwide are infected with tuberculosis and the infection manifests at any stage of HIV infection. Fungal infection is usually confined to PLWH unaware of their HIV infection until immunosuppression is advanced or those choosing to discontinue cART. The importance of viral infections has diminished since wide availability of cART; however, mortality from COVID-19 in PLWH may remain greater than in the non-HIV population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans
9.
J Neurol ; 269(8): 3990-3999, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820925

ABSTRACT

Fatigue in its many forms of physical, mental, and psychosocial exhaustion is a common symptom of post-COVID-19 condition, also known as "Long COVID." Persistent fatigue in COVID-19 patients is frequently accompanied by cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms; however, less is known about the relationships between these components of post-COVID-19 condition and fatigue itself. Consequently, the present study sought to (1) distinguish the types of fatigue experienced by participants, and (2) investigate whether cognitive deficits across various domains and neuropsychiatric conditions predicted these different types of fatigue. The study included 136 COVID-19 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation due to cognitive complaints 8 months on average after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Measures included self-reported fatigue (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial), neuropsychiatric questionnaires (assessing symptoms of depression, anxiety, apathy, and executive functioning), a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and self-reported quality of life and everyday functioning. Results showed that reports of clinical significant fatigue were pervasive in our sample (82.3% of participants), with physical fatigue rated highest on average relative to the subscale maximum. Elevated levels of apathy, anxiety, and executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric measures along with executive and attentional difficulties on cognitive tests were found to be consistently important predictors among different types of fatigue. This implicates both cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms as predictors of fatigue in post-COVID-19 condition, and stresses the importance of a holistic approach in assessing and considering potential treatment for COVID-19 patients experiencing fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur Radiol ; 32(7): 4427-4436, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study reports our experience with paired inspiration/expiration thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans in the follow-up of COVID-19 patients with persistent respiratory symptoms. METHODS: From August 13, 2020, to May 31, 2021, 48 long-COVID patients with respiratory symptoms (27 men and 21 women; median age, 62.0 years; interquartile range: 54.0-69.0 years) underwent follow-up paired inspiration-expiration thin-section CT scans. Patient demographics, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rate, and clinical and laboratory features of acute infection were also included. The scans were obtained on a median of 72.5 days after onset of symptoms (interquartile range: 58.5-86.5) and at least 30 days after hospital discharge. Thin-section CT findings included ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation pattern, consolidation, traction bronchiectasis, reticulation, parenchymal bands, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping. We used a quantitative score to determine the degree of air trapping in the expiratory scans. RESULTS: Parenchymal abnormality was found in 50% (24/48) of patients and included air trapping (37/48, 77%), ground-glass opacities (19/48, 40%), reticulation (18/48, 38%), parenchymal bands (15/48, 31%), traction bronchiectasis (9/48, 19%), mosaic attenuation pattern (9/48, 19%), bronchial wall thickening (6/48, 13%), and consolidation (2/48, 4%). The absence of air trapping was observed in 11/48 (23%), mild air trapping in 20/48 (42%), moderate in 13/48 (27%), and severe in 4/48 (8%). Independent predictors of air trapping were, in decreasing order of importance, gender (p = 0.0085), and age (p = 0.0182). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, in a limited number of patients, suggest that follow-up with paired inspiratory/expiratory CT in long-COVID patients with persistent respiratory symptoms commonly displays air trapping. KEY POINTS: • Our experience indicates that paired inspiratory/expiratory CT in long-COVID patients with persistent respiratory symptoms commonly displays air trapping. • Iterative reconstruction and dose-reduction options are recommended for demonstrating air trapping in long-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311479

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period.MethodsWe conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400mg of hydroxychloroquine daily the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. Results52.8% of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% in the placebo arm. Both groups showed similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AE were reported. Almost all AE (96.4%) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (28.3% vs 16.9%, p=0.044). Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was COVID-19 diagnosed. Consequently, our study design deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy.ConclusionsFirst month follow-up analysis displayed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe.Trial registration  This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04331834) on April 2nd 2020.

12.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While much of the scientific focus thus far has been on cognitive sequelae in patients with severe COVID-19, subjective cognitive complaints are being reported across the spectrum of disease severity, with recent studies beginning to corroborate patients' perceived deficits. In response to this, the aims of this study were to (1) explore the frequency of impaired performance across cognitive domains in post-COVID patients with subjective complaints and (2) uncover whether impairment existed within a single domain or across multiple. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with subjective cognitive complaints post-COVID were assessed with a comprehensive protocol consisting of various neuropsychological tests and mood measures. Cognitive test performance was transformed into T scores and classified based on recommended guidelines. After performing a principal component analysis to define cognitive domain factors, distributions of test scores within and across domains were analyzed. RESULTS: Results revealed pervasive impact on attention abilities, both as the singularly affected domain (19% of single-domain impairment) as well as coupled with decreased performance in executive functions, learning, and long-term memory. These salient attentional and associated executive deficits were largely unrelated to clinical factors such as hospitalization, disease duration, biomarkers, or affective measures. DISCUSSION: These findings stress the importance of comprehensive evaluation and intervention to address cognitive sequelae in post-COVID patients of varying disease courses, not just those who were hospitalized or experienced severe symptoms. Future studies should investigate to what extent these cognitive abilities are recuperated over time as well as employ neuroimaging techniques to uncover underlying mechanisms of neural damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
13.
Lancet HIV ; 8(11): e701-e710, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Factors affecting outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people living with HIV are unclear. We assessed the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and severe outcomes among people living with HIV. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using data from the PISCIS cohort of people with HIV in Catalonia (Spain) between March 1 and Dec 15, 2020. We linked PISCIS data with integrated health-care, clinical, and surveillance registries through the Public Data Analysis for Health Research and Innovation Program of Catalonia (PADRIS) to obtain data on SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, chronic comorbidities, as well as clinical and mortality outcomes. Participants were aged at least 16 years in care at 16 hospitals in Catalonia. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses and severe outcomes were assessed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. We estimated the effect of immunosuppression on severe outcomes (hospital admission for >24 h with dyspnoea, tachypnoea, hypoxaemia, asphyxia, or hyperventilation; or death) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. FINDINGS: We linked 20 847 (72·8%) of 28 666 participants in the PISCIS cohort with PADRIS data; 13 142 people had HIV. 749 (5·7%) people with HIV were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2: their median age was 43·5 years (IQR 37·0-52·7), 131 (17·5%) were female, and 618 (82·5%) were male. 103 people with HIV (13·8%) were hospitalised, seven (0·9%) admitted to intensive care, and 13 (1·7%) died. SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was more common among migrants (adjusted hazard ratio 1·55, 95% CI 1·31-1·83), men who have sex with men (1·42, 1·09-1·86), and those with four or more chronic comorbidities (1·46, 1·09-1·97). Age at least 75 years (5·2, 1·8-15·3), non-Spanish origin (2·1, 1·3-3·4), and neuropsychiatric (1·69, 1·07-2·69), autoimmune disease (1·92, 1·14-3·23), respiratory disease (1·84, 1·09-3·09), and metabolic disease (2·59, 1·59-4·23) chronic comorbidities were associated with increased risk of severe outcomes. A Kaplan-Meier estimator showed differences in the risk of severe outcomes according to CD4 cell count in patients with detectable HIV RNA (p=0·039) but no differences were observed in patients with undetectable HIV RNA (p=0·15). INTERPRETATION: People living with HIV with detectable HIV viraemia, chronic comorbidities, and some subpopulations could be at increased risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19. These groups should be prioritised in clinical management and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes. FUNDING: Fundació "la Caixa". TRANSLATIONS: For the Catalan, Spanish and Russian translations of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 808, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily for the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400 mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. RESULTS: 52.8% (142/269) of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% (127/269) in the placebo arm. Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was diagnosed with COVID-19. The trial was stopped due to futility and our study design was deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy. Both groups showed a similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AEs were reported. Almost all AEs (96.4%, 106/110) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (27.4% (39/142) vs 15.7% (20/127), p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Although the efficacy of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine for preventing COVID-19 could not be evaluated, our study showed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331834 . Registered on April 2, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488511

ABSTRACT

It is essential to find new biomarkers for severity stratification of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is upregulated in pathological conditions that involve inflammation and/or oxidative stress. We determined circulating levels of GDF-15 and correlated them with clinical and laboratory parameters reflecting severity in 84 patients with COVID-19, finding that GDF-15 levels were higher in both patients than in 20 healthy controls and were higher in patients with poorer respiratory function. GDF-15 levels also correlated with interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer levels and with neutrophilia and lymphopenia. Of all the analysed biomarkers, GDF-15 showed the best area under the receiver operating characteristics curve in identifying patients with poor respiratory function. In conclusion, our data support GDF-15 as a biomarker associated with pulmonary impairment in COVID-19 and so can potentially be useful in stratifying COVID-19 cases by severity.

17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 758347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463526

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study aim was to assess the association of vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and severe outcomes in subjects admitted for COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pseudonymised medical record data from subjects admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona, Spain) for COVID-19 during March and April 2020. The composite primary study outcome was defined as death and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Association between risk factors and study outcomes was evaluated by bivariate analysis, followed by logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 1,267 persons were hospitalised during the observation period. Overall, 14.9% of the subjects were on active vitamin D supplementation treatment before admission. The subjects in the vitamin D group were significantly older than subjects without vitamin D supplementation. We observed higher rates of the primary outcome (death and/or IMV) among the persons with previous use of vitamin D (30.1 vs. 22.9% in those not receiving treatment). In the bivariate analysis, previous use of vitamin D was positively associated with death and/or IMV [odds ratio (OR): 1.45 95% CI: 1.03; 2.04]; however, after adjustment for other risk factors this association disappeared (OR: 1.09 95%CI: 0.65; 1.81). Conclusion: We did not find an association between vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and death and/or IMV in subjects admitted for COVID-19. The age and the burden of age-associated comorbidities were independently associated with the in-hospital events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25923, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blocking IL-6 pathways with sarilumab, a fully human anti-IL-6R antagonist may potentially curb the inflammatory storm of SARS-CoV2. In the present emergency scenario, we used "off-label" sarilumab in 5 elderly patients in life-threatening condition not candidates to further active measures. We suggest that sarilumab can modulate severe COVID-19-associated Cytokine Release Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e051237, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322827

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study's objective was to assess the risk of severe in-hospital complications of patients admitted for COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus (DM). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: We used pseudonymised medical record data provided by six general hospitals from the HM Hospitales group in Spain. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables associated with mortality and the composite of mortality or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the overall population, and stratified for the presence or absence of DM. Spline analysis was conducted on the entire population to investigate the relationship between glucose levels at admission and outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 1621 individuals without DM and 448 with DM were identified in the database. Patients with DM were on average 5.1 years older than those without. The overall in-hospital mortality was 18.6% (N=301), and was higher among patients with DM than those without (26.3% vs 11.3%; p<0.001). DM was independently associated with death, and death or IMV (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.7 to 3.1 and OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.6 to 2.8, respectively; p<0.001). In subjects with DM, the only variables independently associated with both outcomes were age >65 years, male sex and pre-existing chronic kidney disease. We observed a non-linear relationship between blood glucose levels at admission and risk of in-hospital mortality and death or IMV. The highest probability for each outcome (around 50%) was at random glucose of around 550 mg/dL (30.6 mmol/L), and the risks flattened above this value. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the high burden associated with DM in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection, particularly among men, the elderly and those with impaired kidney function. Moreover, hyperglycaemia on admission was strongly associated with poor outcomes, suggesting that personalised optimisation could help to improve outcome during the hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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