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3.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167628

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing a heavy burden in hospital healthcare workers (HCW) in terms of increased work, organizational changes, risk exposure, and social stigma. The present study aims at evaluating the psychological outcome among HCWs at the final stages of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional and survey-based study was conducted during June 2020 among 996 HCWs of the University Hospital of Padova. All the subjects completed questionnaires investigating the perception of risk of infecting or being infected by COVID-19, psychopathological variables, and coping abilities. Compared to physicians and healthcare assistants, nurses showed higher levels of depression (p = 0.002), insomnia (p < 0.001), and generalized anxiety (p = 0.001). Females reported increased concerns about the possibility of infecting others (p = 0.046), greater anxiety (p < 0.001), COVID-19 related fears (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), and post-traumatic distress (p < 0.001) than males. Being employed in a COVID-19 unit, being transferred to other units, and living with children and the elderly were factors associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Greater coping abilities were detected in physicians, and in those HCWs employed in COVID units. Our findings evidenced that the psychological consequences of the pandemic were non-homogeneously distributed across HCWs categories and pointed out the presence of specific in-hospital and out-of-hospital risk factors.

4.
Clin Nephrol ; 95(3): 151-156, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak represents a global health emergency, and dialysis patients are a high-risk population. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hemodialysis facilities require specific protocols to be planned and promptly executed for the management of suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19 with respect to prevention, protection, screening, and isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our Hemodialysis Unit, we adopted individual protection measures accompanied by measures to minimize contacts among hemodialysis patients with suspicious symptoms as well as other patients and medical staff. We provided our patients detailed instructions to be followed in the event of their having symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection or having contacts with SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects. Ultimately, four possible scenarios and care paths were developed and implemented in collaboration with the Infectious Diseases and Emergency Units at the Padua University Hospital. RESULTS: The application of this strategy has resulted in the nearly 200 patients treated in our hemodialysis facilities while there were only 2 cases of COVID-19 (1% incidence rate) with no deaths. CONCLUSION: We attribute the low COVID-19 incidence noted so far for patients in our hemodialysis facilities to the early detection and prompt isolation of suspected patients per our specific plan along with the prompt application of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrology , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Biochem ; 90: 8-14, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is broad and thus early appropriate risk stratification can be helpful. Our objectives were to define the frequency of myocardial injury using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and to understand how to use its prognostic abilities. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) in Italy in 2020. Hs-cTnI was sampled based on clinical judgment. Myocardial injury was defined as values above the sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limits (URLs). Most data is from the initial hospital value. RESULTS: 426 unique patients were included. Hs-cTnI was measured in 313 (73.5%) patients; 85 (27.2%) had myocardial injury at baseline. Patients with myocardial injury had higher mortality during hospitalization (hazard ratio = 9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-17.79], p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis including clinical and laboratory variables demonstrated an AUC of 0.942 with modest additional value of hs-cTnI. Myocardial injury was associated with mortality in patients with low APACHE II scores (<13) [OR (95% CI): 4.15 (1.40, 14.22), p = 0.014] but not in those with scores > 13 [OR (95% CI): 0.48 (0.08, 2.65), p = 0.40]. Initial hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L identified 33% of patients that were at low risk with 97.8% sensitivity (95% CI 88.7, 99.6) and 99.2% negative predictive value. Type 1 myocardial infarction (MI) and type 2 MI were infrequent. CONCLUSIONS: hs-cTnI at baseline is a significant predictor of mortality in COVID-19 patients. A value < 5 ng/L identified patients at low risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiomyopathies/mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963402

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of Vò Euganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways for low-risk, high-risk, and confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to accomplish three main targets: guarantee a safe pathway for non-COVID-19 patients, ensure health personnel safety, and maintain an efficient workload. Thus, an additional pathway was created with the aid of a trailer-mounted Computed Tomography (CT) scanner devoted to positive patients. We evaluated the performance of our approach from February 21 through April 12 in terms of workload (e.g., number of CT examinations) and safety (COVID-19-positive healthcare workers). There was an average of 72.2 and 17.8 COVID-19 patients per day in wards and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), respectively. A total of 176 high-risk and positive patients were examined. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was one of the most common exams, and 24 pulmonary embolism scans were performed. No in-hospital transmission occurred in the DDI neither among patients nor among health personnel. The weekly number of in-patient CT examinations decreased by 27.4%, and the surgical procedures decreased by 29.5%. Patient screening and dedicated diagnostic pathways allowed the maintenance of high standards of care while working in safety.

8.
Clin Nephrol ; 95(3): 151-156, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak represents a global health emergency, and dialysis patients are a high-risk population. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hemodialysis facilities require specific protocols to be planned and promptly executed for the management of suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19 with respect to prevention, protection, screening, and isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our Hemodialysis Unit, we adopted individual protection measures accompanied by measures to minimize contacts among hemodialysis patients with suspicious symptoms as well as other patients and medical staff. We provided our patients detailed instructions to be followed in the event of their having symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection or having contacts with SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects. Ultimately, four possible scenarios and care paths were developed and implemented in collaboration with the Infectious Diseases and Emergency Units at the Padua University Hospital. RESULTS: The application of this strategy has resulted in the nearly 200 patients treated in our hemodialysis facilities while there were only 2 cases of COVID-19 (1% incidence rate) with no deaths. CONCLUSION: We attribute the low COVID-19 incidence noted so far for patients in our hemodialysis facilities to the early detection and prompt isolation of suspected patients per our specific plan along with the prompt application of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrology , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(9):3042, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-783827

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of VòEuganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways for low-risk, high-risk, and confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to accomplish three main targets: guarantee a safe pathway for non-COVID-19 patients, ensure health personnel safety, and maintain an efficient workload. Thus, an additional pathway was created with the aid of a trailer-mounted Computed Tomography (CT) scanner devoted to positive patients. We evaluated the performance of our approach from February 21 through April 12 in terms of workload (e.g., number of CT examinations) and safety (COVID-19-positive healthcare workers). There was an average of 72.2 and 17.8 COVID-19 patients per day in wards and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), respectively. A total of 176 high-risk and positive patients were examined. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was one of the most common exams, and 24 pulmonary embolism scans were performed. No in-hospital transmission occurred in the DDI neither among patients nor among health personnel. The weekly number of in-patient CT examinations decreased by 27.4%, and the surgical procedures decreased by 29.5%. Patient screening and dedicated diagnostic pathways allowed the maintenance of high standards of care while working in safety.

10.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(6): 309-317, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the successful emergency plan implemented by Padova University Hospital (AOUP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The emergency plan included early implementation of procedures aimed at meeting the increasing demand for testing and care while ensuring safe and timely care of all patients and guaranteeing the safety of healthcare workers. RESULTS: From 21 February to 1 May 2020, there were 3,862 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Province of Padua. A total of 485 patients were hospitalized in AOUP, of which 91 were admitted to the ICU; 12 .6% of admitted patients died. The average bed occupancy rate in the ICU was 61.1% (IQR 43.6%:77.4%). Inpatient surgery and inpatient admissions were kept for 76% and 74%, respectively, compared to March 2019. A total of 123,077 swabs were performed, 19.3% of which (23,725 swabs) to screen AOUP workers. The screening of all staff showed that 137 of 7,649 (1.8%) hospital workers were positive. No healthcare worker died. DISCUSSION: AOUP strategy demonstrated effective management of the epidemic thanks to the timely implementation of emergency procedures, a well-coordinated effort shared by all hospital Departments, and their continuous adjustment to the ongoing epidemic. Timely screening of all hospital workers proved to be particularly important to defend the hospital, avoiding epidemic clusters due to unknown positive cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emergencies , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, a large number of infections have been reported among healthcare workers (HCWs). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs involved in the first management of infected patients and to describe the measures adopted to prevent the transmission in the hospital. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted between February 21 and April 16, 2020, in the Padua University Hospital (north-east Italy). The infection control policy adopted consisted of the following: the creation of the "Advanced Triage" area for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 cases, and the implementation of an integrated infection control surveillance system directed to all the healthcare personnel involved in the Advance Triage area. HCWs were regularly tested with nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2; body temperature and suggestive symptoms were evaluated at each duty. Demographic and clinical data of both patients and HCWs were collected and analyzed; HCWs' personal protective equipment (PPE) consumption was also recorded. The efficiency of the control strategy among HCWs was evaluated identifying symptomatic infection (primary endpoint) and asymptomatic infection (secondary endpoint) with confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: 7595 patients were evaluated in the Advanced Triage area: 5.2% resulted positive and 72.4% was symptomatic. The HCW team was composed of 60 members. A total of 361 nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on HCWs. All the swabs resulted negative and none of the HCWs reached the primary or the secondary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated hospital infection control strategy, consisting of dedicated areas for infected patients, strict measures for PPE use and mass surveillance, is successful to prevent infection among HCWs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Body Temperature , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/organization & administration
13.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(12): 1949-1955, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695417

ABSTRACT

Since February 21, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread exponentially worldwide. Neonatal patients needing intensive care are considered a vulnerable population. To report the results of a policy based on multi-timepoint surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 of all neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), their parents, and all healthcare providers in a part of Italy with a high prevalence of the infection. Observational study conducted from 21 February to 21 April 2020. Intervention consisted of (a) parental triage on arrival at the neonatal ward; (b) universal testing with nasopharyngeal swabs and blood testing for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies; (c) use of continuous personal protective equipment at the NICU by parents and staff. A total of 6726 triage procedures were performed on 114 parents, and 954 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 226 individuals. Five (2.2%) asymptomatic individuals (2 parents and 3 healthcare providers) tested positive on nasopharyngeal swabs and were kept isolated for 14 days. Of 75 admitted newborn, no one tested positive on nasopharyngeal swabs or antibody tests. Three parents presented with fever or flu-like symptoms at triage; they tested negative on swabs.Conclusion: With universal screening of neonates, parents, and staff, there were no cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the neonates admitted to a NICU in an area with a high incidence of SARS-CoV-2. Our experience could be usefully compared with other strategies with a view to developing future evidence-based guidelines for managing high-risk neonates in case of new epidemics. What is Known: • The novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 has since spread worldwide at a remarkable rate, with more than 2.5 million confirmed cases. • Pediatric population may be less affected from COVID-19 than adult population but infants and newborn babies seem to be more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. What is New: • Using an approach based on triage; testing with nasopharyngeal swabs and serology; and use of personal protective equipment, there were no cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among neonates in a NICU in a high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 area. • Positive and asymptomatic individuals were identified and isolated early allowing the containment of infection's spread among healthcare providers and parents.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Infection Control/methods , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Neonatal Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Triage , Vulnerable Populations
14.
Nature ; 584(7821): 425-429, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628367

ABSTRACT

On 21 February 2020, a resident of the municipality of Vo', a small town near Padua (Italy), died of pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection1. This was the first coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-related death detected in Italy since the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, Hubei province2. In response, the regional authorities imposed the lockdown of the whole municipality for 14 days3. Here we collected information on the demography, clinical presentation, hospitalization, contact network and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasopharyngeal swabs for 85.9% and 71.5% of the population of Vo' at two consecutive time points. From the first survey, which was conducted around the time the town lockdown started, we found a prevalence of infection of 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-3.3%). From the second survey, which was conducted at the end of the lockdown, we found a prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8-1.8%). Notably, 42.5% (95% CI: 31.5-54.6%) of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections detected across the two surveys were asymptomatic (that is, did not have symptoms at the time of swab testing and did not develop symptoms afterwards). The mean serial interval was 7.2 days (95% CI: 5.9-9.6). We found no statistically significant difference in the viral load of symptomatic versus asymptomatic infections (P = 0.62 and 0.74 for E and RdRp genes, respectively, exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). This study sheds light on the frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, their infectivity (as measured by the viral load) and provides insights into its transmission dynamics and the efficacy of the implemented control measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Load , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
15.
Virchows Arch ; 477(3): 341-347, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591333

ABSTRACT

With the continuous spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and increasing number of deaths worldwide, the need and appropriateness for autopsy in patients with COVID-19 became a matter of discussion. In fact, in the COVID-19 era protection of healthcare workers is a priority besides patient management. No evidence is currently available about the real risk related to the procedure as well as to the subsequent management of the samples. We herein describe the procedure that has been used to perform the first series of postmortem examinations in the COVID center of the Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy, after the implementation of an ad hoc operating procedure, to minimize the risk of infection for pathologists and technicians. Provided that the procedure is performed in an adequate environment respecting strict biosafety rules, our data indicate that complete postmortem examination appears to be safe and will be highly informative providing useful insights into the complex disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Autopsy/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feasibility Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Workflow
16.
Radiol Med ; 125(7): 691-694, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526588

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 outbreak is requiring a tremendous effort not only regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach but also in terms of global management of the delivered care. Hospital administrations had to provide a prompt response to a rapidly evolving emergency characterized by the necessity of giving access to an enormous number of infected patients, guaranteeing appropriate care to patients in need of other types of treatment, and simultaneously preserving the well-being of healthcare providers. To optimize the diagnostic pathway during the current COVID-19 outbreak, the hospital administration of our tertiary center applied a highly structured framework assigning specific tasks to the different units composing the Department of Imaging. In particular, since the beginning of the pandemic, a mobile CT scanner in a truck was rented and became operative for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and another CT was assigned for all suspected cases. The success and efficacy of the management applied by our administration is demonstrated by the fact that during the outbreak, the radiological workflow was never interrupted. In fact, despite the national lockdown only a 29.3% decrease of CT scans occurred compared to the previous year. Moreover, none of the healthcare providers of the Department contracted the infection at work. Thus, according to the experience gained in our center, we recommend to all hospital administrations facing the COVID-19 outbreak to promptly adapt their resources, creating precise and safe pathways for their diagnostic units.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management , Universal Precautions , Workflow
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