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Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1705-1706, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009175


Background: Uncontrolled systemic infammation characterizes COVID-19 and autoinfammatory diseases such as adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). Biosynthesis of pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), i.e. lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), pro-tectins (PD), and maresins (MaR), ensures infammation shutdown and tissue repair, limiting neutrophils recruitment and stimulating macrophages to remove apoptotic cells. Among protectins, reduction of PD1 was found in the lungs of mice infected with the H5N1 infuenza virus and experimental treatment with PD1 resulted in increased animals' survival (Morita M et al 2013). Objectives: We investigated the effects of SPMs in pathogenesis and clinical evolution of AOSD and compared these data with mild and severe COVID-19. Finally, we analyzed the potential role of PD1 in modulating the infammatory response of macrophages obtained from AOSD patients, COVID-19 patients and healthy donors (HDs). Methods: 21 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (10 ICU and 11 hospitalized in medical clinical unit) and 13 patients with AOSD were enrolled. Plasma PD1 levels from patients and controls were analyzed by ELISA, and mono-cytes-derived macrophages were polarized into M1 and M2 phenotype. We analyzed the effect of PD-1 on macrophages differentiation. At 10 days, macrophages were analyzed for surface expression of subtypes markers by flow cytometry. Cytokines production was measured in supernatants by Bio-Plex Assays. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS) from 3 AOSD patients, 2 COVID-19 patients and 3 HDs were obtained. Next-generation deep sequencing was then performed to identify the differences in PBMCs transcripts profiles. Results: AOSD patients with systemic scored (SS) ≥1 showed an increase of PD1 levels compared to AOSD patients with lower systemic score (p=0.04) (Figure 1A). Similarly, plasma levels of PD1 were increased in COVID-19 patients independently from their clinical subsets, compared to HDs (p=0.02). In vitro treatment with PD1 of monocytes-derived macrophages from AOSD and COVID-19 patients induced a signifcant increase of M2 polarization vs control (p<0.05) (Figure 1B). Furthermore, a signifcant release of IL-10 and CCL4 from M2 macrophages was observed when compared to control (p<0.05) (Figure 1C). In the transcriptomes from 3 AOSD patients (2 mild and 1 severe), 2 COVID-19 patients (1 mild and 1 ICU) and 2 HDs, we observed that genes involved in infammation, lipid catabolism and monocytes activation were spe-cifcally dysregulated in AOSD and COVID-19 patients when compared to HDs. Among them pla2g15, pla2g12a, pla2g2d, involved in mobilization of SPMs precursors, were signifcant upregulated in patients compared to HDs (p<.01, ;log2FoldChange;>1.2) (Figure 1D). The largest part of the genes involved in infammation, lipid catabolism, and monocytes activation are less expressed in AOSD patients when compared to COVID19 patients, as reported in Table 1. Conclusion: The counterbalance by SPMs during infammation is still a largely unexplored pathway. Our study suggests that an imbalance of SPMs in autoin-fammatory diseases as well as COVID-19. The modulation of SPMs as observed in our experiments, might represent a new possible therapeutic strategy during AOSD and COVID-19.

Journal of Social and Personal Relationships ; 39(1):92-99, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1582709
Maltrattamento e Abuso all'Infanzia ; 23(1):29-46, 2021.
Article in Italian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1232532


A growing body of research has documented the negative impact of COVID-19 containment measures on children's psychological well-being. The role of parental stress and the specific impact of different parental stressors on children's difficulties are underinvestigated. The current cross-sectional study was aimed at exploring the link between children's (3-17 years of age) emotional difficulties and some specific sources of parental stress after the first lockdown period and which sources of parental stress contribute to children's difficulties. 506 Italian parents filled in an online questionnaire at the end of June 2020. Results showed that the limitation of social interactions and family life arrangements have a significant impact on children's difficulties, suggesting focused interventions aimed at reducing the negative impact of the pandemic on younger generations. © 2021 Franco Angeli Edizioni. All rights reserved.

Italian Sociological Review ; 10:869-887, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1215751


This article addresses the issue of gender-based violence against women (GBVAW) during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. With an emphasis on intimate partner violence (IPV), it focuses on the degree of government responsiveness to this issue and compares the cases of Spain and Italy: two European countries that – from March to May 2020 – were among the hardest hit during the coronavirus pandemic. The aim of this paper is twofold: to investigate how the two nation-states dealt with violence against women (VAW) during the pandemic – which mostly refers to intimate and couple relationships – and to compare their different degrees of government responsiveness in this specific section of progressive social policies. While COVID-19 was spreading, the country ruled by Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez proved to be very active in advancing practical guidelines and measures to deal with GBVAW, whereas Italy, governed by Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, didn’t act likewise. The article adopts a multi-method approach and argues that the way a specific society presents a social phenomenon influences its response in terms of policies. Furthermore, this investigation claims that the dialogue between civil society and the institutional level needs to be reinvigorated in order to comprehensively address GBVAW. Perhaps, by presenting a comparison between similar cases in a situation of emergency, this article could serve this aim. © 2020. All Rights Reserved.