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Eur J Pediatr ; 181(10): 3577-3593, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982151


COVID-19 can present with a range of skin manifestations, some of which specific of the pediatric age. The aim of this systematic literature review was to determine the type, prevalence, time of onset, and evolution of cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19 in newborns, children, and adolescents, after excluding multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). PubMed, Tripdatabase, ClinicalTrials, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using an ad hoc string for case reports/series and observational studies, published between December 2019 and February 2022. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE and CARE tools. Seventy-three (49 case reports/series and 24 studies) out of 26,545 identified articles were included in the analysis. Dermatological lesions were highly heterogeneous for clinical presentation, time of onset, and association with other COVID-19 manifestations. Overall, they mainly affected the acral portions, and typically presented a favorable outcome. Pseudo-chilblains were the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Mucocutaneous manifestations could be the only/predominant and early manifestation of COVID-19 that could precede other more severe manifestations by days or weeks. Therefore, physicians of all disciplines should be familiar with them. WHAT IS KNOWN: • A variety of cutaneous manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. • Urticaria, maculopapular, or vesicular rashes can occur at any age, while chilblains and erythema multiforme are more common in children and young patients. WHAT IS NEW: • Skin lesions related to SARS-CoV-2 infection often show a peculiar acral distribution. • Mucocutaneous lesions of various type may be the only/predominant manifestation of COVID-19; they could present in paucisymptomatic and severely ill patients and occur at different stages of the disease.

COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953354


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the experiences by distance learning (DL) method during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy, and to search for correlations with purported experiences and respective levels of social determinants of health (SDH). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey, investigating various SDH and parents' attitude towards DL, proposed 6 months after the beginning of the pandemic to a sample population of parents with school-aged children throughout Italy. RESULTS: A total of 3791 questionnaires were analyzed. Non-Italian parents complained more frequently of difficulties in providing support to their children in DL due to poor digital skills (p = 0.01), lack of good-quality digital equipment (p = 0.01), problems with the Italian language (p < 0.001), and a lower level of education (p < 0.001). When parents lived apart, greater difficulties in concentration in children using DL (p = 0.05) and a lower parental capacity to support DL (p = 0.002) were reported. Adequate digital structures appeared related to living in owned compared to rented property, higher levels of parental education, and better familial financial situations. CONCLUSIONS: Students from families with financial difficulties and low levels of parental education, or even those living in houses for rent or having separated parents, may be disadvantaged in an educational context since the introduction of DL.

COVID-19 , Education, Distance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006938


The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and subsequent containment measures are causing an increase in food insecurity (FI) worldwide, with direct consequences on children's nutrition. We aimed to investigate the effects of the lockdown imposed in Italy on FI and changes in eating habits and body weight in the pediatric population 6 months after the beginning of the pandemic through a cross-sectional online survey proposed to parents of children <18 and living in Italy. Among 5811 respondents, most of whom were Italian, living in Northern Italy, and with a wealthy household economy, 8.3% reported that their families were at risk of FI before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2 and, alarmingly, this percentage increased to 16.2% after the pandemic began, with households from Southern Italy being more at risk. Moreover, 27.3% of the parents reported that their children were eating more; an increase in "junk food" consumption was also found; 31.8% of the respondents declared an increase in children's weight; weight loss prevailed among adolescents. Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is again requiring restrictions, our findings might serve as a warning to politicians to promote healthy lifestyles and provide assistance to the groups in need.

COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Pandemics , Parents , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged