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1.
Front Med ; 16(1): 102-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303365

ABSTRACT

Consecutively hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China were retrospectively enrolled from January 2020 to March 2020 to investigate the association between the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RAS-I) and the outcome of this disease. Associations between the use of RAS-I (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)), ACEI, and ARB and in-hospital mortality were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models in overall and subgroup of hypertension status. A total of 2771 patients with COVID-19 were included, with moderate and severe cases accounting for 45.0% and 36.5%, respectively. A total of 195 (7.0%) patients died. RAS-I (hazard ratio (HR)= 0.499, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.325-0.767) and ARB (HR = 0.410, 95% CI 0.240-0.700) use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19. For patients with hypertension, RAS-I and ARB applications were also associated with a reduced risk of mortality with HR of 0.352 (95% CI 0.162-0.764) and 0.279 (95% CI 0.115-0.677), respectively. RAS-I exhibited protective effects on the survival outcome of COVID-19. ARB use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
2.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(3): 100046, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164617

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.xinn.2020.100028.].

3.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(12): 2095-2102, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which could be caused by both systematic responses from multi-organ dysfunction and direct virus infection. While advanced evidence is needed regarding its clinical features and mechanisms. We aimed to describe two phenotypes of AKI as well as their risk factors and the association with mortality. METHODS: Consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China from 1 January 2020 to 23 March 2020 were included. Patients with AKI were classified as AKI-early and AKI-late according to the sequence of organ dysfunction (kidney as the first dysfunctional organ or not). Demographic and clinical features were compared between two AKI groups. Their risk factors and the associations with in-hospital mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4020 cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included and 285 (7.09%) of them were identified as AKI. Compared with patients with AKI-early, patients with AKI-late had significantly higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers. Both AKIs were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality, with similar fully adjusted hazard ratios of 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-4.49] for AKI-early and 3.09 (95% CI 2.17-4.40) for AKI-late. Only hypertension was independently associated with the risk of AKI-early. While age, history of chronic kidney disease and the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were associated with the risk of AKI-late. CONCLUSIONS: AKI among patients with COVID-19 has two clinical phenotypes, which could be due to different mechanisms. Considering the increased risk for mortality for both phenotypes, monitoring for AKI should be emphasized during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100028, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720752

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, many randomized controlled trials have been launched to test the efficacy of promising treatments. These trials will offer great promise for future treatment. However, a public health emergency calls for a balance between gathering sound evidence and granting therapeutic access to promising trial drugs as widely as possible. In an electronic survey, we found that 3.9% of the participants preferred to receive an unproven trial drug directly in the hypothetical scenario of mild COVID-19 infection. This percentage increased drastically to 31.1% and 54.2% in the hypothetical scenario of severe and extremely severe infection, respectively. Our survey indicates a likelihood of substantial receptivity of trial drugs among actual patients in severe conditions. From the perspective of deontological ethics, a trial can only be approved when potential benefits of the investigational treatment are presumed to outweigh risks, so compassionate or off-label use of investigational therapies merits evaluation.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 732-739, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-5562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first broke out in 2019 and subsequently spread worldwide. Chloroquine has been sporadically used in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. We propose that the immunomodulatory effect of hydroxychloroquine also may be useful in controlling the cytokine storm that occurs late phase in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2. Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The pharmacological activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine was tested using SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were implemented for both drugs separately by integrating their in vitro data. Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen while considering the drug's safety profile. RESULTS: Hydroxychloroquine (EC50 = 0.72 µM) was found to be more potent than chloroquine (EC50 = 5.47 µM) in vitro. Based on PBPK models results, a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily of hydroxychloroquine sulfate given orally, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg given twice daily for 4 days is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it reached 3 times the potency of chloroquine phosphate when given 500 mg twice daily 5 days in advance. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Lung/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
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