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1.
International Journal of the Sociology of Language ; 2021(267-268):105-110, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1143307

ABSTRACT

This short paper discusses language and globalization in the context of COVID-19 The pandemic has important impacts on people across the globe, and in particular the absence of face-to-face interaction results in new forms of communication and may lead to new ways of language change This paper revisits sociolinguistics and globalization, and discusses challenges brought about by COVID-19 and its containment measures The pandemic generates particularly discourses, especially from those who are affected the most This paper includes a vignette of such discourses to show that mobility and inequality remain key issues in the current stage of globalization

2.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1552, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686841

ABSTRACT

Respiratory virus infections are one of the major causes of acute respiratory disease or exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, next-generation sequencing has not been used for routine viral detection in clinical respiratory samples owing to its sophisticated technology. Here, several pharyngeal samples with COPD were collected to enrich viral particles using an optimized method (M3), which involved M1 with centrifugation, filtration, and concentration, M2 (magnetic beads) combined with mixed nuclease digestion, and M4 with no pretreatment as a control. Metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatics analyses showed that the M3 method for viral enrichment was superior in both viral sequencing composition and viral taxa when compared to M1, M2, and M4. M3 acquired the most viral reads and more complete sequences within 15-h performance, indicating that it might be feasible for viral detection in multiple respiratory samples in clinical practice. Based on sequence similarity analysis, 12 human viruses, including nine Anelloviruses and three coronaviruses, were characterized. Coronavirus OC43 with the largest number of viral reads accounted for nearly complete (99.8%) genome sequences, indicating that it may be a major viral pathogen involved in exacerbation of COPD.

3.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 322-327, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109181

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is spread from human to human and has resulted in a global pandemic, posing a disastrous public health risk worldwide. Patients with chronic kidney disease, especially those on dialysis, are considered to be at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 due to their immunocompromised status and frail condition. The home treatment setting of peritoneal dialysis (PD) has advantages in terms of implementing self-care when routine hospital visits and social activities are restricted, thus greatly reducing exposure of PD patients to the virus. Methods and Results: We outline general operational considerations in PD management during the COVID-19 pandemic, including precautionary measures for PD patients and healthcare staff. Precautionary measures for PD patients include education on prevention of, and screening for, COVID-19, preclinic screening, in-clinic management, meticulous remote patient management and special hospitalization arrangements. The diagnosis and treatment of PD patients with COVID-19 are discussed. Precautionary measures for PD staff include continuous education on, and training in, COVID-19, exposure history surveillance and self-monitoring for COVID-19 among healthcare personnel, appropriate personal protective equipment and hand hygiene, organization of medical activities and staffing, and adequate environment cleaning. Conclusions: This is a battle of the entire human society against the novel coronavirus. Integrated teamwork among healthcare providers, supported by society as a whole, is needed as part of the ongoing public health response to try to slow the spread of COVID-19.

5.
Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. ; 6(41): 637-641, 2020.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-727549

ABSTRACT

Objective To predict the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic situation based on the infectious disease dynamics susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model, so as to provide guidance for effective control of the epidemic. Methods Python crawler automatic update function was used to collect the epidemic data released by the National Health Commission of China. An improved infectious disease dynamics SEIR model, which can automatically correct the COVID-19 basic reproductive number (R0), was constructed to predict the development trend of COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei Province of China and South Korea. Results The peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei Province of China predicted by the model would appear on Feb. 21, 2020. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases would be about 50 000 on Feb. 19 and would fall to below 30 000 on Mar. 4, and the epidemic would end on May 10. According to the actual data released by the National Health Commission of China, the peak number of confirmed COVID-19 patients was 53 371. The model predicted that an epidemic peak in South Korea would be on Mar. 7, and would end at the end of April. Conclusion This improved infectious disease dynamics SEIR model established in the early stage of COVID-19 epidemic has achieved relatively accurate prediction. The timely and effective intervention by relevant government departments has significantly affected the development of the epidemic. The epidemic situation in other countries in East Asia, such as South Korea, is still on the rise in March, suggesting that China needs to be on guard against the risk of imported epidemic.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 883-890.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165371

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have posed a severe threat to global public health. It is unclear how the human immune system responds to this infection. Here, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to profile immune signatures in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of eight COVID-19 cases. The expression of proinflammatory genes, especially chemokines, was markedly elevated in COVID-19 cases compared to community-acquired pneumonia patients and healthy controls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercytokinemia. Compared to SARS-CoV, which is thought to induce inadequate interferon (IFN) responses, SARS-CoV-2 robustly triggered expression of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs exhibit immunopathogenic potential, with overrepresentation of genes involved in inflammation. The transcriptome data was also used to estimate immune cell populations, revealing increases in activated dendritic cells and neutrophils. Collectively, these host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection could further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and point toward antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/analysis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology
7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
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