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Virus Res ; 323: 199004, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240649


Emerging evidence indicates that gut virome plays a role in human health and disease, however, much less is known about the viral communities in blood. Here we conducted a direct metatranscriptomic sequencing of virus-like-particles in blood from 1200 healthy individuals, without prior amplification to avoid potential amplification bias and with a strictly bioinformatic and manual check for candidate viral reads to reduce false-positive matches. We identified 55 different viruses from 36 viral families, including 24 human DNA, RNA and retroviruses in 70% of the studied pools. The study showed that anelloviruses are widely distributed and dominate the blood virome in healthy individuals. Human herpesviruses and pegivirus-1 are commonly prevalent in asymptomatic humans. We identified the prevalence of RNA viruses often causing acute infection, like HEV, HPIV, RSV and HCoV-HKU1, revealing of a transmissible risk of asymptomatic infection. Several viruses possible related to transfusion safety were identified, including human Merkel cell polyomavirus, papillomavirus, parvovirus B19 and herpesvirus 8 in addition to HBV. In addition, phages in Caudovirales and Microviridae, were commonly found in pools of samples with a very low abundance; a few sequences for invertebrate, plant and giant viruses were found in some of individuals; however, the remaining 31 viruses mostly reflect extensive contamination from commercial reagents and the work environments. In conclusion, this study is the first comprehensive investigation of blood virome in healthy individuals by metatranscriptomic sequencing of VLP in China. Further investigation of potential false positives representing a major challenge for the identification of novel viruses in mNGS, will offer a systemic idea and means to reveal true viral infections of human.

Stress Health ; 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802585


Resilience is learnable and broadly described as an individual's adaptive coping ability, its potential value for stress reduction must be explored. With a global coronavirus pandemic, innovative ways to deliver resilience training amidst heightened mental health concerns must be urgently examined. This systematic review aimed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of digital training for building resilience and reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and (2) to identify essential features for designing future digital training. A three-step search was conducted in eight electronic databases, trial registries and grey literature to locate eligible studies. Randomised controlled trials examining the effects of digital training aimed at enhancing resilience were included. Data analysis was conducted using the Stata version 17. Twenty-two randomised controlled trials involving 2876 participants were included. Meta-analysis revealed that digital training significantly enhanced the participants' resilience with moderate to large effect (g = 0.54-1.09) at post-intervention and follow-up. Subgroup analyses suggested that training delivered via the Internet with a flexible programme schedule was more effective than its counterparts. This review supports the use of digital training in improving resilience. Further high-quality randomised controlled trials with large sample size are needed.

Science ; 373(6557): 918-922, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367378


Zoonotic avian influenza A virus (IAV) infections are rare. Sustained transmission of these IAVs between humans has not been observed, suggesting a role for host genes. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare avian IAV H7N9 patients with healthy controls and observed a strong association between H7N9 infection and rare, heterozygous single-nucleotide variants in the MX1 gene. MX1 codes for myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), an interferon-induced antiviral guanosine triphosphatase known to control IAV infections in transgenic mice. Most of the MxA variants identified lost the ability to inhibit avian IAVs, including H7N9, in transfected human cell lines. Nearly all of the inactive MxA variants exerted a dominant-negative effect on the antiviral function of wild-type MxA, suggesting an MxA null phenotype in heterozygous carriers. Our study provides genetic evidence for a crucial role of the MX1-based antiviral defense in controlling zoonotic IAV infections in humans.

Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/genetics , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Heterozygote , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Mutation, Missense , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/chemistry , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/metabolism , Poultry , Viral Zoonoses , Whole Genome Sequencing