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1.
Energies ; 15(6):2066, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760462

ABSTRACT

This study discusses how to facilitate the barrier-free circulation of energy big data among multiple entities and how to balance the energy big data ecosystem under government supervision using dynamic game theory. First, we define the related concepts and summarize the recent studies and developments of energy big data. Second, evolutionary game theory is applied to examine the interaction mechanism of complex behaviors between power grid enterprises and third-party enterprises in the energy big data ecosystem, with and without the supervision of government. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the main factors affecting co-opetition, such as the initial participation willingness, distribution of benefits, free-riding behavior, government funding, and punitive liquidated damages. The results show that both government supervision measures and the participants’ own will have an impact on the stable evolution of the energy big data ecosystem in the dynamic evolution process, and the effect of parameter changes on the evolution is more significant under the state of no government supervision. In addition, the effectiveness of the developed model in this work is verified by simulated analysis. The present model can provide an important reference for overall planning and efficient operation of the energy big data ecosystem.

2.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(12): 2708-3145, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568038

ABSTRACT

The third edition of Flow Cytometry Guidelines provides the key aspects to consider when performing flow cytometry experiments and includes comprehensive sections describing phenotypes and functional assays of all major human and murine immune cell subsets. Notably, the Guidelines contain helpful tables highlighting phenotypes and key differences between human and murine cells. Another useful feature of this edition is the flow cytometry analysis of clinical samples with examples of flow cytometry applications in the context of autoimmune diseases, cancers as well as acute and chronic infectious diseases. Furthermore, there are sections detailing tips, tricks and pitfalls to avoid. All sections are written and peer-reviewed by leading flow cytometry experts and immunologists, making this edition an essential and state-of-the-art handbook for basic and clinical researchers.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Infections/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Mice , Practice Guidelines as Topic
3.
Semin Dial ; 35(1): 71-80, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are highly threatened in the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but evidence of risk factors for mortality in this population is still lacking. METHODS: We followed outcomes of the overall MHD population of Wuhan, including 7154 MHD patients from 65 hemodialysis centers, from January 1 to May 4, 2020. Among them, 130 were diagnosed with COVID-19. The demographic and clinical data of them were collected and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: Compared to the corresponding period of last year, the all-cause mortality rate of the Wuhan MHD population significantly rose in February, and dropped down in March 2020. Of the 130 COVID-19 cases, 51 (39.2%) were deceased. Advanced age, decreased oxygen saturation, low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on admission, and complications including acute cardiac injury (HR 5.03 [95% CI 2.21-11.14], p < 0.001), cerebrovascular event (HR 2.80 [95% CI 1.14-6.86], p = 0.025) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 3.50 [95% CI 1.63-7.51], p = 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for the death of COVID-19. The median virus shedding period of survivors was 25 days, longer than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance hemodialysis patients are a highly vulnerable population at increased risk of mortality and prolonged virus shedding period in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Advanced age, decreased oxygen saturation, low DBP on admission, and complications like acute cardiac injury are parameters independently associated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1961, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169399

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 reflects an inefficient immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2. Here we analyze, at the single cell level, plasmablasts egressed into the blood to study the dynamics of adaptive immune response in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care. Before seroconversion in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, peripheral plasmablasts display a type 1 interferon-induced gene expression signature; however, following seroconversion, plasmablasts lose this signature, express instead gene signatures induced by IL-21 and TGF-ß, and produce mostly IgG1 and IgA1. In the sustained immune reaction from COVID-19 patients, plasmablasts shift to the expression of IgA2, thereby reflecting an instruction by TGF-ß. Despite their continued presence in the blood, plasmablasts are not found in the lungs of deceased COVID-19 patients, nor does patient IgA2 binds to the dominant antigens of SARS-CoV-2. Our results thus suggest that, in severe COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 triggers a chronic immune reaction that is instructed by TGF-ß, and is distracted from itself.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 566599, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the recent global COVID-19 outbreak, which led to a public health emergency. Entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells is dependent on the SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and cathepsin. Cathepsin degrades the spike protein (S protein), which results in the entry of viral nucleic acid into the human host cell. METHODS: We explored the susceptibility of the central nervous system (CNS) to SARS-CoV-2 infection using single-cell transcriptome analysis of glioblastoma. RESULTS: The results showed that ACE2 expression is relatively high in endothelial cells (ECs), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and neural precursor cells (NPCs). Cathepsin B (Cat B) and cathepsin (Cat L) were also strongly expressed in various cell clusters within the glioblastoma microenvironment. Immunofluorescence staining of glioma and normal brain tissue chips further confirmed that ACE2 expression co-localized with CD31, CD73, and nestin, which confirmed the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 of nervous system cells, including ECs, BMSCs, and NPCs, from clinical specimens. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 neural invasion and suggest that special attention should be paid to SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with neural symptoms, especially those who suffered a glioma.

8.
Ther Apher Dial ; 25(1): 55-65, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936606

ABSTRACT

HD care may experience great stress with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A modified HD modality named bed-sided short-duration renal replacement therapy (BSRRT) was used in noncritical maintenance HD (MHD) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Wuhan due to extreme situation. To determine the safety and efficacy as a substitution for intermittent HD (IHD), we conducted this study. We used the data of 88 noncritical COVID-19 MHD patients collected from 65 medical units at the hospitals in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to March 10, 2020. t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher exact probability method were used to compare the baseline characteristics, treatment, and death. Log-rank test and Cox regression multivariate analysis was used to compare the survival of noncritical patients who were transferred to BSRRT modality versus those who were continued on the IHD. Univariate analysis showed the level of reported fatigue symptom at present, bilateral lung computed tomography infiltration and steroid treatment differed between the two groups. The outcome of death of the two groups did not show significant differences in univariate analysis (P = .0563). Multivariate Cox regression analysis dialysis showed modality of treatment after COVID-19 diagnosis was not a significant predictor of death (P = .1000). These data suggest that for noncritical COVID-19 MHD patients, the transfer from IHD to BSRRT does not have significant difference in the risk of death compared with IHD group. This finding suggests this modified modality could be an option for the substitution for IHD during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Point-of-Care Systems , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(3): 535-542, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by the PED virus (PEDV), which is a member of the family Coronaviridae. Since the first outbreaks in Belgium and the United Kingdom were reported in 1971, PED has spread throughout many countries around the world and causing significant economic loss. This study was conducted to investigate the recent distribution of PEDV strains in Vietnam during the 2015-2016 seasons. METHODS: A total of 30 PED-specific PCR-positive intestinal and faecal samples were collected from unvaccinated piglets in Vietnam during the 2015-2016 seasons. The full length of the spike (S) gene of these PEDV strains were analysed to determine their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available PEDV strains globally. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S gene sequences revealed that the 28 Vietnamese PEDV strains collected in the northern and central regions clustered in the G2 group (both G2a and G2b sub-groups), while the other 2 PEDV strains (HUA-PED176 and HUA-PED254) collected in the southern region were clustered in the G1/G1b group/sub-group. The nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) analyses based on the complete S gene sequences showed that the Vietnamese PEDV strains were closely related to each other, sharing nt and aa homology of 93.2%-99.9% and 92.6%-99.9%, respectively. The N-glycosylation patterns and mutations in the antigenic region were observed in Vietnamese PEDV strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides, for the first time, up-to-date information on viral circulation and genetic distribution, as well as evidence to assist in the development of effective PEDV vaccines in Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine , Vietnam
10.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(4): 490-499.e1, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730121

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are highly vulnerable to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The current study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on both nucleic acid testing (NAT) and antibody testing in Chinese patients receiving MHD. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: From December 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020, a total of 1,027 MHD patients in 5 large hemodialysis centers in Wuhan, China, were enrolled. Patients were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection by symptoms and initial computed tomography (CT) of the chest. If patients developed symptoms after the initial screening was negative, repeat CT was performed. Patients suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were tested with 2 consecutive throat swabs for viral RNA. In mid-March 2020, antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 was obtained for all MHD patients. EXPOSURE: NAT and antibody testing results for SARS-CoV-2. OUTCOMES: Morbidity, clinical features, and laboratory and radiologic findings. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Differences between groups were examined using t test or Mann-Whitney U test, comparing those not infected with those infected and comparing those with infection detected using NAT with those with infection detected by positive serology test results. RESULTS: Among 1,027 patients receiving MHD, 99 were identified as having SARS-CoV-2 infection, for a prevalence of 9.6%. Among the 99 cases, 52 (53%) were initially diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by positive NAT; 47 (47%) were identified later by positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. There was a spectrum of antibody profiles in these 47 patients: IgM antibodies in 5 (11%), IgG antibodies in 35 (74%), and both IgM and IgG antibodies in 7 (15%). Of the 99 cases, 51% were asymptomatic during the epidemic; 61% had ground-glass or patchy opacities on CT of the chest compared with 11.6% among uninfected patients (P<0.001). Patients with hypertensive kidney disease were more often found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and were more likely to be symptomatic than patients with another primary cause of kidney failure. LIMITATIONS: Possible false-positive and false-negative results for both NAT and antibody testing; possible lack of generalizability to other dialysis populations. CONCLUSIONS: Half the SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients receiving MHD were subclinical and were not identified by universal CT of the chest and selective NAT. Serologic testing may help evaluate the overall prevalence and understand the diversity of clinical courses among patients receiving MHD who are infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Function ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-675980

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious threat to global public health and there is currently no effective antiviral therapy. It has been suggested that Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which were primarily employed as prophylaxis and treatment for malaria, could be used to treat COVID-19. CQ and HCQ may be potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, which is mediated via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and may also inhibit subsequent intracellular processes which lead to COVID-19, including damage to the cardiovascular system. However, paradoxically, CQ and HCQ have also been reported to cause damage to the cardiovascular system. In this review, we provide a critical examination of the published evidence. CQ and HCQ could potentially be useful drugs in the treatment of COVID-19 and other ACE2 involved virus infections, but the antiviral effects of CQ and HCQ need to be tested in more well-designed clinical randomized studies and their actions on the cardiovascular system need to be further elucidated. However, even if it were to turn out that CQ and HCQ are not useful drugs in practice, further studies of their mechanism of action could be helpful in improving our understanding of COVID-19 pathology.

12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(7): 1387-1397, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that those most vulnerable to developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are older adults and those with underlying illnesses, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease, which are common comorbidities among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. However, there is limited information about the clinical characteristics of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 or about interventions to control COVID-19 in hemodialysis centers. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively through an online registration system that includes all patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis at 65 centers in Wuhan, China. We reviewed epidemiologic and clinical data of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between January 1, 2020 and March 10, 2020. RESULTS: Of 7154 patients undergoing hemodialysis, 154 had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The mean age of the 131 patients in our analysis was 63.2 years; 57.3% were men. Many had underlying comorbidities, with cardiovascular disease (including hypertension) being the most common (68.7%). Only 51.9% of patients manifested fever; 21.4% of infected patients were asymptomatic. The most common finding on chest computed tomography (CT) was ground-grass or patchy opacity (82.1%). After initiating comprehensive interventions-including entrance screening of body temperature and symptoms, universal chest CT and blood tests, and other measures-new patients presenting with COVID-19 peaked at 10 per day on January 30, decreasing to 4 per day on February 11. No new cases occurred between February 26 and March 10, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were susceptible to COVID-19 and that hemodialysis centers were high-risk settings during the epidemic. Increasing prevention efforts, instituting universal screening, and isolating patients with COVID-19 and directing them to designated hemodialysis centers were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19 in hemodialysis centers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Registries , Renal Dialysis/methods , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108604, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324

ABSTRACT

Here, we examined the efficacy of are combinant subunit antigen-based oral vaccine for preventing porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). First, we generated a soluble recombinant partial spike S1 protein (aP2) from PEDV in E. coli and then evaluated the utility of aP2 subunit vaccine-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate microspheres (HPMCP) and RANKL-secreting L. lactis (LLRANKL) as a candidate oral vaccine in pregnant sows. Pregnant sows were vaccinated twice (with a 2 week interval between doses) at 4 weeks before farrowing. Titers of virus-specific IgA antibodies in colostrum, and neutralizing antibodies in serum, of sows vaccinated with HPMCP (aP2) plus LL RANKL increased significantly at 4 weeks post-first vaccination. Furthermore, the survival rate of newborn suckling piglets delivered by sows vaccinated with HPMCP (aP2) plus LL RANKL was similar to that of piglets delivered by sows vaccinated with a commercial killed porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED) vaccine. The South Korean government promotes a PED vaccine program (live-killed-killed) to increase the titers of IgA and IgG antibodies in pregnant sows and prevent PEDV. The oral vaccine strategy described herein, which is based on a safe and efficient recombinant subunit antigen, is an alternative PED vaccination strategy that could replace the traditional strategy, which relies on attenuated live oral vaccines or artificial infection with virulent PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Lactobacillus/immunology , Methylcellulose/analogs & derivatives , RANK Ligand/immunology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Methylcellulose/administration & dosage , Microspheres , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Pregnancy , RANK Ligand/administration & dosage , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
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