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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 890074, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809605

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.607612.].

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 804538, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731852

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-COV-2 has caused a surge in COVID-19 cases worldwide, placing a great burden on the health care system under the zero-tolerance epidemic prevention policy in China. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety among health care workers during the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and to discuss the mediating role of positive coping style between resilience and anxiety, and the moderating role of general self-efficacy. METHOD: Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) were used in this cross-sectional study among 390 healthcare workers in Jiangsu Province, China. Mackinnon's four-step procedure was applied to test the mediation effect, and Hayes PROCESS macro was conducted to examine the moderated mediation model. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety among Chinese healthcare workers during the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant was 41.8%. Male, unmarried, childless and younger subjects reported higher levels of anxiety. Positive coping partially mediated the effect of resilience on anxiety among healthcare workers and the indirect effect was stronger with the increase of general self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety was prevalent among healthcare workers during the spread of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. This research sheds new light on the potential mechanism underlying the association between resilience and anxiety and provides new insight into the prevention of anxiety among healthcare workers during the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant.

3.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 42(12):1449-1454, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1727026

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of negative emotions on risk perception in frontline medical staff at the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325339

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is more infectious and transmissible in humans than SARS-CoV, despite the genetic relatedness and sharing the same cellular receptor. We sought to assess whether human airway organoids can model SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human airway and elucidate the cellular basis underlying its higher transmissibility. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can establish a productive infection in human airway organoids, in which ciliated cell and basal cell are infected. Wildtype SARS-CoV-2 carrying a furin cleavage motif exhibits comparable replication kinetics to a mutant virus without the motif. Human airway organoids sustain higher replication of SARS-CoV-2 than SARS-CoV, whereas interferon response is more potently induced in the latter than the former. Overall, human airway organoids can model SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulate the disposable role of furin cleavage motif for virus transmission in humans. SARS-CoV-2 stealth growth and evasion of interferon response may underlie pre-symptomatic virus shedding in COVID-19 patients, leading to its high infectiousness and transmissibility.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324678

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care workers (HCWs) on the front line of the COVID-19 were facing greater risks than usual, and their perception of these risks could also be an important part of their anti-epidemic work. This study aimed to examine risk perception and negative emotions of during two periods of the COVID-19 and emphasized emotional intervention management of HCWs impacting the risk perceptions and self-protection and would provide plausible intervention points for the psychological aid under a stressful condition.Methods The current study was adapted a repeated cross-sectional research participated by 504 Chinese HCWs who were assigned to work at the current disease resistance line. The demographic information about gender, profession, and location were collected in the demographic questionnaire. Risk perception questionnaire was adapted for COVID-19 to assess risk perception and the Chinese version of emotional self-rating scale (PANAS) was used to evaluate HCWs’ negative emotions.Results Findings revealed the risk perception and negative emotions of HCWs varied in different gender, profession and the location, as well as in different periods of COVID-19. Besides, the levels of tension, fear, worry and risk perception were higher during Period 1 than they were during Periods 2 of COVID-19. Over the different periods, the predominated negative emotions of HCWs presented varied, but the positive relations to risk perception were consisted and could be a significant predictor of risk perception. Worry was found to be closely related to and a significant predictor of high-level risk perception in the period 1;whereas in the period 2 the predictive type of negative emotion was tension.Conclusion The significance of this research lies in its examination of risk perception and negative emotions of HCWs combating the COVID-19 during two periods of the pandemic. The findings showed both risk perception and negative emotions of HCWs were affected by the COVID-19 and underscored the importance of negative emotions as a significant factor for risk perception of Chinese HCWs enduring the great challenge of pandemic. To ensure safety and prevent the return of the pandemics, it would be better to monitor the risk perception and negative emotions of HCWs and emphasize the risk protection behaviors.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312582

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care workers (HCWs) fighting Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not immune to fatigue. Self-efficacy has been suggested as a protective factor for fatigue. Nonetheless, less is known regarding the underlying mechanisms behind the association. This research aimed to explore the prevalence of fatigue among HCWs during the pandemic, investigate the mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and moderating effect of negative coping in the association between self-efficacy and fatigue.Methods. The cross-sectional study employed a sample of 527 HCWs from Anhui Province, China. Self-efficacy, PTSD symptoms, negative coping and fatigue were measured by General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSCQ) and 14-item Fatigue Scale (FS-14) respectively.Results. The prevalence of fatigue among HCWs was 56.7%. The effect of self-efficacy on fatigue was partially mediated by PTSD symptoms. Additionally, negative coping moderated both the direct effect of self-efficacy on fatigue and the mediating effect of PTSD symptoms. As revealed by Johnson-Neyman technique, when the standard score of negative coping enhanced to 1.49 and over, the direct association between self-efficacy and fatigue was not significant. Likewise, the effect of self-efficacy on PTSD symptoms had no statistical significance when the standard score of negative coping was − 1.40 and lower.Conclusions. More than half HCWs suffer from fatigue during the COVID-19. For HCWs during the COVID-19 epidemic, especially those with higher levels of negative coping, it might be crucial to design program combining the enhancement of self-efficacy and interventions for PTSD to reduce fatigue.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0155021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685499

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen causing respiratory disease in children. We sought to investigate the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae among outpatient children with mild respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Eligible patients were prospectively enrolled from January 2020 to June 2021. Throat swabs were tested for M. pneumoniae RNA. M. pneumoniae IgM was tested by a colloidal gold assay. Macrolide resistance and the effect of the COVID-19 countermeasures on M. pneumoniae prevalence were assessed. Symptom scores, treatments, and outcomes were evaluated. Eight hundred sixty-two eligible children at 15 centers in China were enrolled. M. pneumoniae was detected in 78 (9.0%) patients. Seasonally, M. pneumoniae peaked in the first spring and dropped dramatically to extremely low levels over time until the next summer. Decreases in COVID-19 prevalence were significantly associated with decreases in M. pneumoniae prevalence (r = 0.76, P = 0.001). The macrolide resistance rate was 7.7%. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the colloidal gold assay used in determining M. pneumoniae infection were 32.1% and 77.9%, respectively. No more benefits for improving the severity of symptoms and outcomes were observed in M. pneumoniae-infected patients treated with a macrolide than in those not treated with a macrolide during follow-up. The prevalences of M. pneumoniae and macrolide resistance in outpatient children with mild RTIs were at low levels in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic but may have rebounded recently. The colloidal gold assay for M. pneumoniae IgM may be not appropriate for diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. Macrolides should be used with caution among outpatients with mild RTIs. IMPORTANCE This is the first and largest prospective, multicenter, active, population-based surveillance study of the epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae among outpatient children with mild respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nationwide measures like strict face mask wearing and restrictions on population movement implemented to prevent the spread of COVID-19 might also effectively prevent the spread of M. pneumoniae. The prevalence of M. pneumoniae and the proportion of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates in outpatient children with mild RTIs were at low levels in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic but may have rebounded recently. The colloidal gold assay for M. pneumoniae IgM may be not appropriate for screening and diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. Macrolides should be used with caution among outpatients with mild RTIs.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/physiology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 42(10):1183-1188, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1622903

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the mental health status of rural residents in Southwest Anhui province and its influencing factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.

9.
J Biosaf Biosecur ; 4(1): 33-37, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587192

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved rapidly into new variants throughout the pandemic. The Omicron variant has more than 50 mutations when compared with the original wild-type strain and has been identified globally in numerous countries. In this report, we analyzed the mutational profiles of several variants, including the per-site mutation rate, to determine evolutionary relationships. The Omicron variant was found to have a unique mutation profile when compared with that of other SARS-CoV-2 variants, containing mutations that are rare in clinical samples. Moreover, the presence of five mouse-adapted mutation sites suggests that Omicron may have evolved in a mouse host. Mutations in the Omicron receptor-binding domain (RBD) region, in particular, have potential implications for the ongoing pandemic.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267961

ABSTRACT

The Omicron Variant of Concern (B.1.1.529) has spread internationally and is raising serious concerns about reduced vaccine efficacy and the increased risk of reinfection. We assessed the serum neutralizing activity using a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay in 292 healthcare workers who had received a homologous booster dose of BBIBP-CorV vaccine, 8 to 9 months after completing the priming two-dose vaccination schedule, to investigate whether the newly identified Omicron variant can escape serum antibody neutralization induced by the booster vaccination. The booster dose of BBIBP-CorV rapidly induced a significantly high level of humoral immune response, and the neutralization geometric mean titer (GMT) against the wild-type strain on day 28 after the booster dose was 294.85 (252.99-343.65), 6.1 times higher than the level on day 28 after the second dose. The neutralization against the Omicron variant was also improved by the booster vaccination, although the GMT showed an approximately 20.1-fold reduction to 14.66 (12.30-17.48) when compared with the wild-type strain. This study demonstrated that a booster dose of BBIBP-CorV led to a significant rebound in neutralizing immune response against SARS-CoV-2, while the Omicron variant showed partial resistance to neutralizing antibodies induced by the booster vaccination.

11.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438652

ABSTRACT

Data from the early stage of a novel infectious disease outbreak provide vital information in risk assessment, prediction, and precise disease management. Since the first reported case of COVID-19, the pattern of the novel coronavirus transmission in Wuhan has become the interest of researchers in epidemiology and public health. To thoroughly map the mechanism of viral spreading, we used the patterns of data at the early onset of COVID-19 from seven countries to estimate the time lag between peak days of cases and deaths. This study compared these data with those of Wuhan and estimated the natural history of disease across the infected population and the time lag. The findings suggest that comparative analyses of data from different regions and countries reveal the differences between peaks of cases and deaths caused by COVID-19 and the incomplete and underestimated cases in Wuhan. Different countries may show different patterns of cases peak days, deaths peak days, and peak periods. Error in the early COVID-19 statistics in Brazil was identified. This study provides sound evidence for policymakers to understand the local circumstances in diagnosing the health of a population and propose precise and timely public health interventions to control and prevent infectious diseases.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e32328, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the importance of the deployment of digital detection surveillance systems to support early warning and monitoring of infectious diseases. These opportunities create a "double-edge sword," as the ethical governance of such approaches often lags behind technological achievements. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate ethical issues identified from utilizing artificial intelligence-augmented surveillance or early warning systems to monitor and detect common or novel infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: In a number of databases, we searched relevant articles that addressed ethical issues of using artificial intelligence, digital surveillance systems, early warning systems, and/or big data analytics technology for detecting, monitoring, or tracing infectious diseases according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, and further identified and analyzed them with a theoretical framework. RESULTS: This systematic review identified 29 articles presented in 6 major themes clustered under individual, organizational, and societal levels, including awareness of implementing digital surveillance, digital integrity, trust, privacy and confidentiality, civil rights, and governance. While these measures were understandable during a pandemic, the public had concerns about receiving inadequate information; unclear governance frameworks; and lack of privacy protection, data integrity, and autonomy when utilizing infectious disease digital surveillance. The barriers to engagement could widen existing health care disparities or digital divides by underrepresenting vulnerable and at-risk populations, and patients' highly sensitive data, such as their movements and contacts, could be exposed to outside sources, impinging significantly upon basic human and civil rights. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings inform ethical considerations for service delivery models for medical practitioners and policymakers involved in the use of digital surveillance for infectious disease spread, and provide a basis for a global governance structure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021259180; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=259180.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1250, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403908

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with re-positive or false-negative test results have so far remained to be determined. The present study provides a cross-sectional observational study on 134 hospitalized patients selected from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) using cluster sampling. A total of 68 patients had reduced red blood cell (RBC) counts, 55 a decrease in the hemoglobin concentration (HBC) and 73 a decline in hematocrit (HCT). The false-negative rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA detection in pharyngeal swab specimens was 18.7%. The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), RBC, HBC and HCT levels in false-negative patients were significantly higher than those in patients who tested positive for viral nucleic acids. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RBC [odds ratio (OR)=0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99], HBC (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) and ALC (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.91) were the factors influencing the negative testing results for viral nucleic acid. The rate of re-positive patients was 16.4%. The white blood cell, RBC, HBC and HCT values in re-positive patients were lower than those in non-re-positive patients. The median (interquartile range) values for RBC, HBC and HCT of male re-positive patients were 3.95 (3.37, 4.2) x1012/l, 123 (103, 133) g/l and 36.6 (31.1, 39.2)%, respectively, while the RBC, HBC and HCT of female re-positive patients were 3.54 (3.13, 3.74) x1012/l, 115 (102, 118) g/l and 34.2 (28.5, 34.9)%, respectively. It was determined that RBC, HBC and HCT values had moderate accuracy in predicting SARS-CoV-2 recurrence in patients with COVID-19 using receiver operating curve analysis. The present study suggested that RBC may have an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 708305, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367759

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. The harmful impact of COVID-19 is beyond just physical health concern. The unprecedented public health crisis has also taken its toll on the mental health of adolescents. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts and investigate the similarities and differences in the influential factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among left-behind children (LBC) and non-left-behind children (NLBC) in rural China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A total of 761 rural Chinese students, of whom 468 were left behind, completed the cross-sectional questionnaires including demographic data, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts. Chi-square test, independent-sample t-test, and logistic regression were performed in the statistical analysis. Results: Overall, 36.4 and 10.4% of rural Chinese students reported suicidal ideation (37.8% for LBC vs. 34.1% for NLBC) and attempts (11.3% for LBC vs. 8.9% for NLBC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among LBC, parental educational level (adjusted odds ratio, Adj. OR = 1.60), maladaptive strategies (Adj. OR = 1.04), anxious symptoms (Adj. OR = 2.61), and depressive symptoms (Adj. OR = 3.85) were significantly associated with suicidal ideation, while age (Adj. OR = 0.56), maladaptive strategies (Adj. OR = 1.08), symptoms of anxiety (Adj. OR = 3.85), and symptoms of depression (Adj. OR = 2.68) were significantly related to suicidal attempts during the COVID-19 outbreak. Among NLBC, gender (Adj. OR = 2.20), parental educational level (Adj. OR = 1.77), perceived family economic status (Adj. OR = 0.39), anxious symptoms (Adj. OR = 2.38), and depressive symptoms (Adj. OR = 2.77) were significantly associated with suicidal ideation, whereas only anxious symptom (Adj. OR = 5.85) was significantly related to suicidal attempts. Conclusion: Suicidal ideation and attempts are prevalent among students in rural China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Our findings also revealed the shared and unique factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among LBC and NLBC during the COVID-19 epidemic. With regard to the differences between LBC and NLBC, the use of maladaptive strategies and age might be vital factors for suicide prevention measures directed specifically toward LBC, whereas interventions sensitive to gender and perceived social economic status should be specifically designed for NLBC amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(3): 601-608, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the psychological status of patients and staff, and the implementation of preventative measures in hemodialysis centers in Guangdong province, China, during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire survey was carried out anonymously between March 28 and April 3, 2020. All of the 516 hemodialysis centers registered in Guangdong province were invited to participate in the survey. The questionnaires were designed to investigate the psychological status of hemodialysis patients and general staff members (doctors, nurses, technicians, and other staff), and to address the implementation of preventative measures for administrators (directors or head nurses) of the hemodialysis centers. RESULTS: A total of 1782 patients, 3400 staff, and 420 administrators voluntarily participated in this survey. Patients living in rural areas reported a higher incidence of severe anxiety compared to those living in other areas (in rural areas, towns, and cities, the incidence rate was 17.0%, 9.0%, and 8.9%, respectively, P < 0.001). Medical staff were less likely to worry about being infected than non-medical staff (13.1% vs 30.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). With respect to the implementation of preventative measures, hemodialysis centers in general hospitals outperformed stand-alone blood purification centers, while tertiary hospitals outperformed hospitals of other levels. However, restrictions regarding the admission of non-resident patients were lower in tertiary hospitals than in other hospitals. In this situation, only one patient imported from Hubei province was diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 did not significantly affect the psychological status of most patients and medical staff members. Due to the implementation of comprehensive preventative measures, there were no cluster outbreaks of COVID-19 in hemodialysis centers. This provincial-level survey may provide referential guidance for other countries and regions that are experiencing a similar pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Infection Control/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Preventive Medicine , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/psychology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Innovation , Preventive Medicine/methods , Preventive Medicine/organization & administration , Psychology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 666789, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264390

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One year after the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, China has made substantial progress in the prevention and control of the pandemic, while the epidemic situation remains grim in China since virus may easily survive with the falling temperature in winter. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and associated factors of anxiety between high-risk and low-risk nurses 1 year after the COVID-19 outbreak, and examine the association between resilience and anxiety and its underlying mechanisms. Method: Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Perceived Social Support Scale and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale were administrated to 701 nurses from Jiangsu Province, China, 1 year after the COVID-19 outbreak. The mediating effect was examined by Mackinnon's four-step procedure, while the moderated mediation model was tested by Hayes PROCESS macro. Results: The findings presented the prevalence of anxiety among nurses was 21.4% 1 year after the COVID-19 pandemic. High-risk nurses presented a higher prevalence of anxiety (24.5 vs. 19.3%) than low-risk nurses. Age and professional title were significantly associated with anxiety only in high-risk nurses (all P < 0.05). Perceived social support mediated the association between resilience and anxiety and the indirect effect was stronger for high-risk nurses than low-risk nurses. Conclusion: Anxiety remains prevalent among nurses 1 year after the COVID-19 outbreak, and resilience plays a protective role against anxiety. Programs that enhance resilience and social support should be designed and special attention should be paid to nurses from high-risk units.

17.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(2): 292-297, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the outbreak of COVID-19, it has become very important to improve biosafety measures taken by medical staff. Fewer pretreatment steps correspond to lower chances of infection. The authors established a direct injection technique to analyze levetiracetam (LEV) concentrations in human serum and studied its application in therapeutic drug monitoring. METHODS: Serum samples were prepared by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration and the filtrate was directly injected into a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography apparatus (Waters UPLC BEH C18 column: 50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) for analysis. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (8:92) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. The detected wavelength was 210 nm. RESULTS: A linear relationship was obtained for LEV from 0.625 to 80 mcg/mL (r2 = 0.999). The limit of detection for the analysis of LEV was 0.125 mcg/mL. The analysis time was shortened to 4 minutes. The recovery rate of LEV based on the current method was 96.6%-100.1%, whereas the absolute recovery rate was 93.2%-96.8%. The relative SD of intraday and interday precision was <7.3%. Stability was achieved at room temperature for 24 hours after 3 freeze-thaw cycles and at -80°C for 21 days. The method was successfully applied to determine LEV concentrations in the serum of 19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The present method is simple, accurate, and sensitive, and can improve biosafety with the direct injection technique. It is suitable for the analysis of LEV concentrations in therapeutic drug monitoring.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Levetiracetam/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
18.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 2-15, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122088

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear. Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis. Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Animals , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 607612, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116722

ABSTRACT

Medical staff were battling against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the expense of their physical and mental health, particularly at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this case, intervening PTSD of medical staff and preparing them for future outbreaks are important. Previous studies showed that perceived stress was related to the development of PTSD. Hence, in this study, the association between risk perception of medical staff and PTSD symptoms in COVID-19 and the potential links were explored. Three hundred four medical staff's exposure to COVID-19 patients, risk perception for working during COVID-19, PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and sleep quality were measured. Mediation analysis tested the indirect effects of anxiety and sleep quality on the relationship between risk perceptions and PTSD symptoms; 27.6% of participants were deemed as having probable PTSD diagnosis. Mediation analysis showed a significant chain-mediating effect of anxiety and sleep quality on the relationships between risk perceptions and PTSD symptoms; higher risk perceptions were related to increased anxiety, worsened sleep quality, and severe PTSD symptoms. Conclusively, medical staff have a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms after 3 months of COVID-19. Their PTSD symptoms were associated with the perceived risk level through the potential links with anxiety and sleep quality. Therefore, risk perception could be critical for our medical staff's responses to public health emergencies. It could be plausible to intervene in the perceived stress to alleviate aroused anxiety and improve sleep quality and thereby deter the development of PTSD.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 144251, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014798

ABSTRACT

The most effective measure to prevent or stop the spread of infectious diseases is the early identification and isolation of infected individuals through comprehensive screening. At present, in the COVID-19 pandemic, such screening is often limited to isolated regions as determined by local governments. Screening of potentially infectious individuals should be conducted through coordinated national or global unified actions. Our current research focuses on using resources to conduct comprehensive national and regional regular testing with a risk rate based, algorithmic guided, multiple-level, pooled testing strategy. Here, combining methodologies with mathematical logistic models, we present an analytic procedure of an overall plan for coordinating state, national, or global testing. The proposed plan includes three parts 1) organization, resource allocation, and distribution; 2) screening based on different risk levels and business types; and 3) algorithm guided, multiple level, continuously screening the entire population in a region. This strategy will overcome the false positive and negative results in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and missing samples during initial tests. Based on our proposed protocol, the population screening of 300,000,000 in the US can be done weekly with between 15,000,000 and 6,000,000 test kits. The strategy can be used for population screening for current COVID-19 and any future severe infectious disease when drugs or vaccines are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Algorithms , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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