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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293751

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) associated pneumonia has emerged in Wuhan, China. The study aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia.<br><br>Methods: 99 cases admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital during January 1 to 20, 2020 and confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test were analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological features, and laboratory data. <br><br>Findings: Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market. The average age of the patients was 62.85 ± 11.99 years, including 67 males and 32 females. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by RT-PCR, and some of them also by serological testing, and metagenomics sequencing analysis. 50 cases (50.51%) had chronic basic diseases. Patients had clinical manifestations of fever (83%), cough (82%), shortness of breath (31%), muscle aches (11%), headache (8%), fuzzy confusion (7%), chest pain (2%), and diarrhea (2%). According to imaging examination, 74 patients showed bilateral pneumonia (74.75%), 25 patients showed multiple mottled and ground-glass opacity, and 1 patient had pneumothorax. Most patients received antiviral, antibiotics, supportive treatments, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and had good prognosis. 17 patients developed acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and among them, 2 patients worsened in a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure.<br><br>Interpretation: The infection of the 2019-nCoV can result in severe and even fatal respiratory disease like ARDS. It is very important to actively prevent complications and secondary infections, treat underlying diseases, and provide timely organ function support. Early diagnosis, early isolation, multiple treatment, and intervention of CRRT and ECMO when necessary can effectively reduce mortality caused by severe coronavirus pneumonia.<br><br>Funding: National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC1309700)<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work.<br><br>Ethical Approval: The study was approved by Jinyintan Hospital Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients involved before enrolment.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292327

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of corticosteroids on severe patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)/ chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is currently unknown. We aimed to investigate effect of corticosteroid on these subgroup patients. Methods: . In this retrospective multicenter study including 5447 confirmed COVID-19 patients from Jan 1, 2020 to Apr 18, 2020, severe patients with COVID-19/HBV co-infection were identified. To minimize the bias of confounding variables on effect of corticosteroid treatment, inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity score was employed. Results: . The prevalence of HBV co-infection in hospitalization COVID-19 patients was 4.1%. 105 severe patients with COVID-19/HBV co-infection were enrolled (median age 62 years, 57.1% male). Fifty-five patients received corticosteroid treatment and 50 patients did not. Corticosteroid treatment was associated with high D-dimer level, neutrophil count (all P <0.05). With IPTW analysis, corticosteroid treatment worsen acute liver injury (OR, 1.767, 95%CI, 1.018-3.065, P =0.043). Corticosteroids might delay SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance (OR, 4.963, 95%CI, 2.717-9.065, P <0.001). The 28-day and in-hospital mortality were both significantly higher in corticosteroid treatment group than non-corticosteroid treatment group (OR, 8.738, 95%CI, 2.826-27.022, P <0.001;OR, 10.122, 95%CI, 3.291-31.129, P <0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis, higher D-dimer level (>1µg/ml) (OR, 10.686, 95%CI, 2.421-47.159, P =0.002) and corticosteroid therapy (OR, 11.236, 95%CI, 1.273-99.154, P =0.029) were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Methylprednisolone dose per day and cumulative dose in non-survivors was significantly higher than in survivors. Conclusions: . In severe patients with COVID-19/HBV co-infection, corticosteroid treatment may increase mortality. Therefore, corticosteroid therapy should be prescribed with caution in the subset of patients.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365541

ABSTRACT

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Thymalfasin/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Thymalfasin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1240457

ABSTRACT

Background Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic with high mortality. Although several studies have reported different risk factors for mortality in patients based on traditional analytics, few studies have used artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. This study investigated prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients using AI methods. Methods COVID-19 patients who were admitted in Wuhan Infectious Diseases Hospital from December 29, 2019 to March 2, 2020 were included. The whole cohort was randomly divided into training and testing sets at a 6:4 ratio. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed to identify predictors of mortality using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression and LASSO-based artificial neural network (ANN) models. The predictive performance of the models was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results A total of 1145 patients (610 men, 53.3%) were included in the study. Of the 1145 patients, 704 were assigned to the training set and 441 were assigned to the testing set. The median age of the patients was 57 years (range: 47–66 years). Severity of illness, age, platelet count, leukocyte count, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total bilirubin, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were identified as independent prognostic factors for mortality. Incorporating these nine factors into the LASSO regression model yielded a correct classification rate of 0.98, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of 0.980 and 0.990 in the training and testing cohorts, respectively. Incorporating the same factors into the LASSO-based ANN model yielded a correct classification rate of 0.990, with an AUC of 0.980 in both the training and testing cohorts. Conclusions Both the LASSO regression and LASSO-based ANN model accurately predicted the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Severity of illness, age, platelet count, leukocyte count, prealbumin, CRP, total bilirubin, APACHE II score, and SOFA score were identified as prognostic factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

6.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204738

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Although abnormal liver chemistries are linked to a higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related death, liver manifestations may be diverse and even confusing. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of published liver manifestations and described the liver damage in patients with COVID-19 who died or discharged alive. Approach & Results: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and three Chinese electronic databases through April 22, 2020. We analyzed pooled data on liver chemistries stratified by the main clinical outcome of COVID-19, using a fixed or random-effects model. In our meta-analysis of 19 studies, which included a total of 4,103 patients, the pooled mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were respectively 31.7 and 51.0 IU/L in the patients with COVID-19 who died and 27.7 and 32.9 IU/L in those discharged alive (both p < 0.0001). Compared with the patients discharged alive, those who died tended to have lower albumin levels but longer prothrombin time and higher international standardized ratio. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, according to the main clinical outcome of COVID-19, we comprehensively described three patterns of liver impairment related to COVID-19, hepatocellular injury, cholestasis, and hepatocellular disfunction. The patients who died from COVID-19 tended to have different liver chemistries from those discharged alive. Special caution should be given to the patients with relatively higher index of liver chemistries.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110418

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has immensely affected economic and social order in not only China but the entire world, seriously threatening peoples' lives and property. In China's fight against COVID-19, the community is at the front line of joint prevention and control of the disease, yet it faces the problem of insufficient resilience. We explored the manifestations and formation mechanism of the problem of insufficient resilience in community public health crisis governance, based on the complex adaptive system theory, which emphasizes interaction among subjects and between subjects and the environment to improve the adaptability to the environment. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted in 28 counties (districts) of 14 cities of 7 provinces in China; 2345 questionnaires and 71 interview data were collected, and we conducted descriptive statistical analysis on questionnaire data. It is found that some communities faced insufficient resilience problems such as "simply isolating households and communities", "blindly setting limits", "layer-by-layer law", and "rejecting and repelling all individuals from or even related to Hubei". These problems are due to the fact that the community have a non-interactive relationship, which is a one-dimensional linear governance model to some extent. The legal content of the building of a "comprehensive disaster-reduction demonstration community" implemented by the Chinese government is compelled to stay at the level of system design to some extent, with its existence playing an ornamental role but lacking a substantial one. In this regard, this study suggests that a resilient governance model of community pluralistic cooperation be established based on the theoretical framework of complex adaptive system. This model is designed to increase the resilience of community public health crisis governance. The authoritative role of central and local policies is expected to be truly developed and played in dealing with the grassroots community public health crisis.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Health Policy , Public Health , COVID-19 , China , Cities , Community Health Planning , Government , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3593-3600, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874307

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To predict the risk of developing severe pneumonia among mild novel coronavirus pneumonia (mNCP) patients on admission. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at three hospitals in Shanghai and Wuhan from January 2020 to February 2020. Real-time polymerasechain-reaction assays were used to detect COVID-19. A total of 529 patients diagnosed with NCP were recruited from three hospitals and classified by four severity types during hospitalization following the standards of the Chinese Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by New Coronavirus Infection (eighth version). Patients were excluded if admitted by ICU on admission (n=92, on a general ward while meeting the condition of severe or critical type on admission (n=25), or there was insufficient clinical information (n=64). In sum, 348 patients with mNCP were finally included, and 68 developed severe pneumonia. Results: mNCP severity prognostic index values were calculated based on multivariate logistic regression: history of diabetes (OR 2.064, 95% CI 1.010-4.683; p=0.043), time from symptom onset to admission ≥7 days (OR 1.945, 95% CI 1.054-3.587; p=0.033), lymphocyte count ≤0.8 (OR 1.816, 95% CI 1.008-3.274; p=0.047), myoglobin ≥90 mg/L (OR 2.496, 95% CI 1.235-5.047; p=0.011), and D-dimer ≥0.5 mg/L (OR 2.740, 95% CI 1.395-5.380; p=0.003). This model showed a c-statistics of 0.747, with sensitivity and specificity 0.764 and 0.644, respectively, under cutoff of 165. Conclusion: We designed a clinical predictive tool for risk of severe pneumonia among mNCP patients to provided guidance for medicines. Further studies are required for external validation.

12.
Respir Med ; 173: 106159, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been a pandemic. The objective of our study was to explore the association between sex and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Detailed clinical data including clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, imaging features and treatments of 1190 cases of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Associations between sex and clinical outcomes were identified by multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 635 (53.4%) male and 555 (46.6%) female patients in this study. Higher rates of acute kidney injury (5.5% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.026), acute cardiac injury (9.1% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.001), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (2.5% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.024) were observed in males. Compared with female patients, male patients with COVID-19 had a higher inhospital mortality rate (15.7% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.005). However, Cox regression analysis showed that sex did not influence inhospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Male sex was associated with a worse prognosis of COVID-19, but it seems not to be an independent prognostic factor.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 99, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) initially emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread worldwide now. Clinical features of patients with COVID-19 have been described. However, risk factors leading to in-hospital deterioration and poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients with severe disease have not been well identified. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, 1190 adult inpatients (≥ 18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and determined outcomes (discharged or died) were included from Wuhan Infectious Disease Hospital from December 29, 2019 to February 28, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 2, 2020. Clinical data including characteristics, laboratory and imaging information as well as treatments were extracted from electronic medical records and compared. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to explore the potential predictors associated with in-hospital deterioration and death. RESULTS: 1190 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Their median age was 57 years (interquartile range 47-67 years). Two hundred and sixty-one patients (22%) developed a severe illness after admission. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that higher SOFA score (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22-1.43, per score increase, p < 0.001 for deterioration and OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.53, per score increase, p = 0.001 for death), lymphocytopenia (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.13-2.89 p = 0.013 for deterioration; OR 4.44, 95% CI 1.26-15.87, p = 0.021 for death) on admission were independent risk factors for in-hospital deterioration from not severe to severe disease and for death in severe patients. On admission D-dimer greater than 1 µg/L (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.19-9.04, p = 0.021), leukocytopenia (OR 5.10, 95% CI 1.25-20.78), thrombocytopenia (OR 8.37, 95% CI 2.04-34.44) and history of diabetes (OR 11.16, 95% CI 1.87-66.57, p = 0.008) were also associated with higher risks of in-hospital death in severe COVID-19 patients. Shorter time interval from illness onset to non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the survivors with severe disease was observed compared with non-survivors (10.5 days, IQR 9.25-11.0 vs. 16.0 days, IQR 11.0-19.0 days, p = 0.030). Treatment with glucocorticoids increased the risk of progression from not severe to severe disease (OR 3.79, 95% CI 2.39-6.01, p < 0.001). Administration of antiviral drugs especially oseltamivir or ganciclovir is associated with a decreased risk of death in severe patients (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05-0.64, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High SOFA score and lymphocytopenia on admission could predict that not severe patients would develop severe disease in-hospital. On admission elevated D-dimer, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and diabetes were independent risk factors of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Administration of oseltamivir or ganciclovir might be beneficial for reducing mortality in severe patients.

14.
J Diabetes ; 12(12): 919-928, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 and has spread globally. Diabetics are at increased risk of infections caused by a variety of pathogens including viruses. The present research aims to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study of COVID-19 patients with diabetes was conducted in four hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui Province. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or next-generation sequencing was carried out to confirm the existence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from respiratory specimens. RESULTS: A total of 54 diabetics (10.36%) were recruited from among 521 COVID-19 patients, with a median age of 63 (interquartile range, 52-70) years. Among them, 51 had been previously diagnosed with diabetes and 3 had been newly diagnosed based on glycosylated hemoglobin over 6.5%. For COVID-19, 47 of the 54 patients had an exposure history. Fever (47/54, 87.04%), dry cough (36/54, 66.67%), and expectoration (21/53, 39.62%) were among the top three symptoms. Lung infiltration was bilateral (46/52, 88.46%) and multilobe (47/52, 90.38%), and ground-glass opacity (36/37, 97.30%) was the most common pattern in radiological images. Moreover, COVID-19 patients with diabetes were prone to be classified as severe or critical cases (46.30%, 25/54) and had complications such as acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury. The proportions of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among the COVID-19 diabetics were 14.81% (8/54) and 12.96% (7/54), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: With older age, diabetics diagnosed as having COVID-19 were prone to develop into severe cases and exhibited a high rate of ICU admission and mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 508: 122-129, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The underlying changes of peripheral blood inflammatory cells (PBICs) in COVID-19 patients are little known. Moreover, the risk factors for the underlying changes of PBICs and their predicting role in severe COVID-19 patients remain uncertain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study including two cohorts: the main cohort enrolling 45 patients of severe type serving as study group, and the secondary cohort enrolling 12 patients of no-severe type serving as control group. The PBICs analysis was based on blood routine and lymphocyte subsets. The inflammatory cell levels were compared among patients according to clinical classifications, disease-associated phases, as well as one-month outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients of non-severe type, the patients of severe type suffered from significantly decreased counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, but increased counts of neutrophils. These PBICs alterations got improved in recovery phase, but persisted or got worse in aggravated phase. Compared with patients in discharged group, the patients in un-discharged/died group suffered from decreased counts of total T lymphocytes, CD4 + T lymphocytes, CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as NK cells at 2 weeks after treatment. Clinical classification-critically severe was the independently risk factor for lymphopenia (OR = 7.701, 95%CI:1.265-46.893, P = 0.027), eosinopenia (OR = 5.595, 95%CI:1.008-31.054, P = 0.049), and worse one-month outcome (OR = 8.984; 95%CI:1.021-79.061, P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia and eosinopenia may serve as predictors of disease severity and disease progression in COVID-19 patients, and enhancing the cellular immunity may contribute to COVID-19 treatment. Thus, PBICs might become a sentinel of COVID-19, and it deserves attention during COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Eosinophils/pathology , Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cell Count , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/virology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
16.
N Engl J Med ; 382(19): 1787-1799, 2020 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.80). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, -5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
18.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 507-513, 2020 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-78

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December, 2019, a pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) emerged in Wuhan, China. We aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-centre study, we included all confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital from Jan 1 to Jan 20, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and were analysed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological features and laboratory data. Outcomes were followed up until Jan 25, 2020. FINDINGS: Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the Huanan seafood market. The average age of the patients was 55·5 years (SD 13·1), including 67 men and 32 women. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by real-time RT-PCR. 50 (51%) patients had chronic diseases. Patients had clinical manifestations of fever (82 [83%] patients), cough (81 [82%] patients), shortness of breath (31 [31%] patients), muscle ache (11 [11%] patients), confusion (nine [9%] patients), headache (eight [8%] patients), sore throat (five [5%] patients), rhinorrhoea (four [4%] patients), chest pain (two [2%] patients), diarrhoea (two [2%] patients), and nausea and vomiting (one [1%] patient). According to imaging examination, 74 (75%) patients showed bilateral pneumonia, 14 (14%) patients showed multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity, and one (1%) patient had pneumothorax. 17 (17%) patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and, among them, 11 (11%) patients worsened in a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure. INTERPRETATION: The 2019-nCoV infection was of clustering onset, is more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, and can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. In general, characteristics of patients who died were in line with the MuLBSTA score, an early warning model for predicting mortality in viral pneumonia. Further investigation is needed to explore the applicability of the MuLBSTA score in predicting the risk of mortality in 2019-nCoV infection. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
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