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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. METHODS: We investigated 1,709 PLWH through a telephone interview and identified 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of the four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWH. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in PLWH is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population prevalence in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19 patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Older PLWH with low CD4 + count, got HIV infected through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed with HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related morbidity rates were comparable between PLWH and the general population. Older age with low CD4 count, an extended period of HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naivety were potential driving forces of COVID-19 prevalence among PLWH. Strategies for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH with weak immune responses are required.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous study suggested that Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten disease course of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our research aims to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in mild COVID-19 patients under well clinical management.METHODS: An unblended cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. 2 cabins were randomly allocated to CHM or control group, with 204 randomly sampled mild COVID-19 patients in each cabin. All participants received a 7-day conventional treatment, and CHM group cabin used additional Huashibaidu granule 10g twice daily. Participants were followed up until they met clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was patient become worsening before clinical endpoint occurred. The secondary outcomes was discharge with cure before clinical endpoint occurred and relief of composite symptoms after 7 days treatment.FINDINGS: All 408 participants were followed up to meet clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. The baseline characteristics were comparable between 2 groups. The number of worsening patients in the CHM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%). There was a significant difference between groups (P=0.014). 8 foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups.INTERPRETATION: 7-day early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced worsening conversion of mild COVID-19 patients. Our study supports Huashibaidu Granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar medical locations with well management.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000029763.FUNDING: This study was supported by “National Key R&D Program of China” (No.2020YFC0841500).DECLARATION OF INTERESTS: The authors guaranteed that there existed no competing interest in this paper.ETHICS APPROVAL STATEMENT: Ethics Review Committee of Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Approval of Ethical Review Acceptance Number: S2020-001;Approval Number: P20001/PJ01.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311708

ABSTRACT

Background: Even people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. Methods: We investigated 1,701 PLWHA through a telephone interview and found 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of four districts’ CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWHA. Results: The incidence proportion of COVID-19 in PLWHA is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population incidence rate in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19/AIDS patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/μl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA who were old, had low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, infected HIV through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed for HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. Conclusions: : PLWHA has comparable COVID-19 morbidity rates as the general population, and older age, low CD4 count, long length since HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naive were potential driving forces of COVID-19 occurrence among PLWHA. Strategies in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA with worse immune responses are needed. Article Summary Line: As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are also at risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA in Wuhan, China.

4.
The European journal of development research ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602668

ABSTRACT

This research assesses the effects of COVID-19-associated shocks on financial constraints and sustainable development goal (SDG) performance to shed light on the impact of SDGs on economic recovery. We construct a large sample of Chinese listed firms from quarterly firm-level accounting data from the China Stock Market & Accounting Research Database for the period 2019Q1–2021Q1, matched with environmental, social, and governance (ESG) scores, SDG performance from the WIND Database, and complemented with data on cumulative and new cases of COVID-19 from the World Health Organization. We use difference-in-differences to investigate any causal effect from COVID-19. We find that COVID-19 induces financial constraints in firms. Further, differing from the existing literature on the determinants of SDGs, we explore the supportive role of SDG performance on firm financial performance and show that ESG can better describe SDG performance and alleviate financial constraints. Moreover, both internal and external financial intermediaries improve with enhanced ESG performance in overcoming financial constraints. Our findings strongly indicate that a sustainable development strategy facilitates efficient adaptation to financial challenges and assists in overcoming external shocks.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292286

ABSTRACT

Background: With the worldwide spread of COVID-19, people’s health and social order have been exposed to enormous risks. After encountering patients who test positive again after discharge, our study analyzed the pathogenesis to further assess the risk and possibility of virus reactivation. Methods: : A separate microarray was acquired from the Integrated Gene Expression System (GEO), and its samples were divided into two groups: a “convalescent-RTP” group consisting of recovery and “retesting-positive” (RTP) patients (group CR) and a “health-RTP” group consisting of healthy control and RTP patients (group HR). The enrichment analysis was performed with R software, obtaining the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto pluripotent stem cells (KEGG) of the genes and genomes. Subsequently, the protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks of each group were established and the hub genes were discovered using the cytoHubba plug-in. Results: : In this study, 20 differentially expressed genes were identified, and 6622 genes were identified in the group CR, consisting of 5003 up-regulated and 1619 down-regulated genes. Meanwhile, 7335 genes were screened in the group HR, including 4323 up-regulated and 3012 down-regulated ones. The GO and KEGG analysis of the two groups revealed significant enrichment of these differentially expressed genes in pathways associated with immune response and apoptosis. In the PPI network constructed, 10 hub genes in group CR were identified, including TP53BP1, SNRPD1, SNRPD2, SF3B1, SNRNP200, MRPS16, MRPS9, CALM1, PPP2R1A, YWHAZ. Similarly, TP53BP1, RPS15, EFTUD2, MRPL16, MRPL17, MRPS14, RPL35A, MRPL32, MRPS6, POLR2G were selected as hub genes. Conclusions: : Using the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression data from GSE166253, we explore the pathogenesis of retesting positive in COVID-19 from the immune mechanism and molecular level. We found TP53BP1, SNRPD1 and SNRPD2 as hub genes in RTP patients. Hence, their regulatory pathway is vital to the management and prognostic prediction of RTP patients, rendering the further study of these hub genes necessary.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 696976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450816

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research suggested that Chinese Medicine (CM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten the disease course in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This research aimed to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in well-managed patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: An unblinded cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. Two cabins were randomly allocated to a CM or control group, with 204 mild COVID-19 participants in each cabin. All participants received conventional treatment over a 7 day period, while the ones in CM group were additionally given Huashibaidu granule 10 g twice daily. Participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was worsening symptoms before the clinical endpoint. The secondary outcomes were cure and discharge before the clinical endpoint and alleviation of composite symptoms after the 7 days of treatment. Results: All 408 participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of worsening patients in the CM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%) with a significant difference between groups (P = 0.014). Eight foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups (P = 0.151). Conclusion: Seven days of early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced the likelihood of worsening symptoms in patients with mild COVID-19. Our study supports Huashibaidu granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar well-managed medical environments. Clinical Trial Registration:www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49408, identifier: ChiCTR2000029763.

7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10602, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1270959

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has impacted the mental health of healthcare providers at the frontline. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the prevalence rate of anxiety and insomnia and identify associated risk factors among healthcare workers in Jilin, China, during the period from January 25 to February 25, 2020. Zung's Self-Reported Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale were used to diagnose anxiety and insomnia, respectively. Associated risk factors were identified through a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 300 healthcare workers were invited and 236 completed the study. Of them, 234 (99.15%) were medical workers, 197 (83.47%) were working at frontline departments, and 159 (67.37%) were fighting against COVID-19. Fifty-seven respondents (24.15%) had anxiety (SAS index score ≥45) and 94 (39.83%) had insomnia (ISI score ≥8). Based on the multivariate analysis, contact with people from Hubei province during work (no vs not clear) [OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.10-0.61] and personal protective equipment (PPE) (not in place vs in place) [OR=6.22, 95%CI: 2.23-17.40] were significantly correlated with anxiety. PPE (not in place vs in place) was the only significant risk factor of insomnia [OR=10.56, 95%CI: 4.00-27.87]. The prevalence of anxiety and insomnia was high in our study, reflecting the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers. The unavailability of PPE in place was a significant risk factor of both anxiety and insomnia.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Depression , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 347-355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961814

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Research on recovering COVID-19 patients could be helpful for containing the pandemic and developing vaccines, but we still do not know much about the clinical features, recovery process, and antibody reactions during the recovery period. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological information, discharge summaries, and laboratory results of 324 patients. Results: In all, 15 (8.62%) patients experienced chest distress/breath shortness, where 8 of the 15 were severely ill. This means severely ill patients need an extended amount of time to recover after discharge; next, 20 (11.49%) patients experienced anxiety and 21 (12.07%) had headache/insomnia and a small fraction of them complained of anosmia/ageusia, indicating that these patients need treatment for mental and psychological health issues. Regarding the re-positive patients, their CT and laboratory test results showed no obvious evidence of illness progress or infectivity but a high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody expression. Conclusion: Recovered COVID-19 patients need psychological and physiological care and treatment, re-positivity can occur in any person, but juveniles, females, and patients with mild/moderate existing symptoms have higher rates of re-positivity, While there is no evidence that turning re-positive has an impact on their infectivity, but it still alerted us that we need differentiate them in the following managements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There have been reports on re-detectable positive nucleic acid tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in recovered coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. In this study, we look at the clinical characteristics, possible causes, pathogenesis, and infectivity of re-detectable positive patients and provide up-to-date information to public health policy planners and clinicians. METHODS: By consulting the latest research data and related progress data of re-detectable positive patients, this study addresses the implications that this special group brings to clinical work and disease prevention and control. RESULTS: We discuss in detail the phenomenon of re-detectable positive nucleic acid tests for recovered patients. There are many possible causes of a re-detectable positive, but there is no 1 factor that can fully explain this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: It can't be completely ruled out that the re-detectable positive patients are infectious. We should be alert to these re-detectable positive patients becoming chronic virus carriers, and virus serological IgM and IgG antibody tests should be added before patient discharge. It is urgent to find a more powerful evidence-based and virological basis for the integrity of viral ribonucleic acid and the variation of viral virulence with time through cell experiments in vitro and animal experiments in vivo.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 18878-18888, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841406

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study we assessed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in patients with critical or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We enrolled 181 patients admitted to Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) with confirmed COVID-19 between January 2020 and February 2020. Ninety-two patients were treated with tocilizumab, and 89 patients were treated conventionally. We analyzed the clinical manifestations, changes in CT scan images, and laboratory tests before and after tocilizumab treatment, and compared these results with the conventionally treated group. A significant reduction in the level of C-reactive protein was observed 1 week after tocilizumab administration. In some cases this meant the end of the IL-6-related cytokine storm. In addition, tocilizumab relieved fever, cough, and shortness of breath with no reported adverse drug reactions. These findings suggest tocilizumab improves clinical outcomes and is effective for treatment of patients with critical or severe COVID-19. However, future clinical trials are needed to better understand the impact of tocilizumab interference with IL-6 and provide a therapeutic strategy for treatment of COVID-19.

11.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-604

ABSTRACT

Background: There were over 49 thousand Coronavirus infected diseases-19(COVID-19) patients in Wuhan city, Hubeprovince, China, the center of epidemic of the

12.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(12): 1470-1472, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725840
13.
Res Sq ; 2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724575

ABSTRACT

Background: Even people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. Methods : We investigated 1,701 PLWHA through a telephone interview and found 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWHA. Results : The incidence proportion of COVID-19 in PLWHA is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population incidence rate in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19/AIDS patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA who were old, had low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, infected HIV through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed for HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. Conclusions: PLWHA has comparable COVID-19 morbidity rates as the general population, and older age, low CD4 count, long length since HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naive were potential driving forces of COVID-19 occurrence among PLWHA. Strategies in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA with worse immune responses are needed. Article Summary Line: As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are also at risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA in Wuhan, China.

14.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(11): 2325-2331, 2020 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, many cases of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus have been discovered in Wuhan, China, and such cases have spread nationwide quickly. At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic. What are the clinical features of this disease? What is the clinical diagnosis and how should such patients be treated? As a clinician, mastery of the clinical characteristics, basic diagnosis, and treatment methods of COVID-19 are required to provide help to patients. CASE SUMMARY: A 42-year-old male patient with a cough lasting 6 d without obvious cause, as well as fever and fatigue for 1 d, was admitted to Hankou Hospital on January 22, 2020 and transferred to Huoshenshan Hospital on February 4. The main clinical symptoms were dry cough, fatigue, and fever. He was diagnosed with COVID-19. From the 4th d of admission, the patient's condition gradually worsened, with increased respiratory rate and body temperature. Peripheral blood lymphocytes decreased progressively. On the 8th d of admission, the patient's highest temperature was 40.7 °C, and oxygen saturation was 83% despite high-flow oxygen inhalation. Chest computed tomography results showed that the virus progressed rapidly. The number of lesions significantly increased with expanded scope and increased density. The distribution of lesions advanced from peripheral to central. In addition to nasal catheter oxygen inhalation and symptomatic support, antiviral drugs were used throughout the treatment. On January 22, oseltamivir phosphate capsules were given orally (75 mg, twice daily) for 6 d. On January 24, three tablets of lopinavir and ritonavir were added orally (twice daily). After 6 d, this was changed to 0.2 g (two tablets) arbidol, taken orally (three times daily) for 5 d. During the severe stage, methylprednisolone was given (40 mg) once every 12 h, immunoglobulin (20 g) was administered by intravenous drip infusion once daily, and thymosin (1.6 mg) was injected subcutaneously once daily combined with immunotherapy. On February 2, symptoms decreased, various indicators improved, and pulmonary inflammation was obviously reduced. Throat swabs on February 4 and 9 were negative for novel coronavirus nucleic acid. After 19 d in the hospital, the patient was successfully treated and discharged. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 in young adults can be successfully treated with active treatment. We report a typical case of COVID-19, analyze its clinical characteristics, summarize its clinical diagnosis and treatment experience, and provide a reference for clinical colleagues.

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