Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccine coverage, an increase in breakthrough COVID-19 infections, prompted administration of a third BNT162b2 dose to people>60 years in Israel since July 2021. Here, we report real-world immunogenicity following third dose. METHODS: Overall, 208 healthcare workers aged>60 were included. Paired pre- and post-second and/or -third dose IgG and neutralizing-antibody titers were compared. A subpopulation of low-responders to the second dose were also tested for T-cell activation. For 25 paired serum samples we tested neutralization of wild-type vs. neutralization of delta and lambda variants, pre- and post-third dose. Active surveillance of vaccine adverse-events was conducted through surveys. RESULTS: A pronounced immune response was observed following the third dose, including a 33-fold and 51-fold increase in IgG and neutralizing ab, respectively. The neutralizing antibody levels post-third-dose were 9.34 times higher than post-second-dose (GMT 2598 95%CI 2085-3237 vs. 207 95%CI 126-339). Nine previously low-responders, had a significant antibody increase post-third-dose, and 7/9 showed increase in T cell activation. Additionally, sera obtained post-third-dose, highly and comparably neutralized the wild-type, delta and lambda variants. Of 1056 responders to the adverse-event survey, none had serious events. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a rapid and broad immune response to the third BNT162b2 dose in individuals>60 years.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 999-1009, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concurrent with the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in Israel initiated on Dec 19, 2020, we assessed the early antibody responses and antibody kinetics after each vaccine dose in health-care workers of different ages and sexes, and with different comorbidities. METHODS: We did a prospective, single-centre, longitudinal cohort study at the Sheba Medical Centre (Tel-Hashomer, Israel). Eligible participants were health-care workers at the centre who had a negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay before receiving the first dose of the intramuscular vaccine, and at least one serological antibody test after the first dose of the vaccine. Health-care workers with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test before vaccination, a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology test before vaccination, or infection with COVID-19 after vaccination were excluded from the study. Participants were followed up weekly for 5 weeks after the first vaccine dose; a second dose was given at week 3. Serum samples were obtained at baseline and at each weekly follow-up, and antibodies were tested at 1-2 weeks after the first vaccine dose, at week 3 with the administration of the second vaccine dose, and at weeks 4-5 (ie, 1-2 weeks after the second vaccine dose). Participants with comorbidities were approached to participate in an enriched comorbidities subgroup, and at least two neutralising assays were done during the 5 weeks of follow-up in those individuals. IgG assays were done for the entire study population, whereas IgM, IgA, and neutralising antibody assays were done only in the enriched comorbidities subgroup. Concentrations of IgG greater than 0·62 sample-to-cutoff (s/co) ratio and of IgA greater than 1·1 s/co, and titres of neutralising antibodies greater than 10 were considered positive. Scatter plot and correlation analyses, logistic and linear regression analyses, and linear mixed models were used to investigate the longitudinal antibody responses. FINDINGS: Between Dec 19, 2020, and Jan 30, 2021, we obtained 4026 serum samples from 2607 eligible, vaccinated participants. 342 individuals were included in the enriched comorbidities subgroup. The first vaccine dose elicited positive IgG and neutralising antibody responses at week 3 in 707 (88·0%) of 803 individuals, and 264 (71·0%) of 372 individuals, respectively, which were rapidly increased at week 4 (ie, 1 week after the second vaccine dose) in 1011 (98·4%) of 1027 and 357 (96·5%) of 370 individuals, respectively. Over 4 weeks of follow-up after vaccination, a high correlation (r=0·92) was detected between IgG against the receptor-binding domain and neutralising antibody titres. First-dose induced IgG response was significantly lower in individuals aged 66 years and older (ratio of means 0·25, 95% CI 0·19-0·31) and immunosuppressed individuals (0·21, 0·14-0·31) compared with individuals aged 18·00-45·99 years and individuals with no immunosuppression, respectively. This disparity was partly abrogated following the second dose. Overall, endpoint regression analysis showed that lower antibody concentrations were consistently associated with male sex (ratio of means 0·84, 95% CI 0·80-0·89), older age (ie, ≥66 years; 0·64, 0·58-0·71), immunosuppression (0·44, 0·33-0·58), and other specific comorbidities: diabetes (0·88, 0·79-0·98), hypertension (0·90, 0·82-0·98), heart disease (0·86, 0·75-1·00), and autoimmune diseases (0·82, 0·73-0·92). INTERPRETATION: BNT162b2 vaccine induces a robust and rapid antibody response. The significant correlation between receptor-binding domain IgG antibodies and neutralisation titres suggests that IgG antibodies might serve as a correlate of neutralisation. The second vaccine dose is particularly important for older and immunosuppressed individuals, highlighting the need for timely second vaccinations and potentially a revaluation of the long gap between doses in some countries. Antibody responses were reduced in susceptible populations and therefore they might be more prone to breakthrough infections. FUNDING: Sheba Medical Center, Israel Ministry of Health.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 79, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is associated with a hypercoagulable state. Severe COVID-19 patients present with high plasma fibrinogen levels, continuous deposition of fibrin and the presence of microthrombi in their lungs, accompanied by significant fibrinolysis, resulting in high D-dimer levels. Due to the role of FXIII in fibrin crosslinking and clot stabilization, we analyzed its activity levels and dynamics in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: FXIII levels were measured in thirty four COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU and in fourteen non-severe COVID-19 patients. FVIII levels were measured for comparison. Laboratory data and clinical variables were recorded. RESULTS: The average FXIII activity level in 34 ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 69.9±33 %, significantly lower compared to an average of 120±20.9 % FXIII activity in 14 non-severe COVID-19 patients. FXIII activity levels were below the low normal value (< 79 % FXIII activity) in 74 % of the ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In contrast, high FVIII activity was measured among all severe COVID-19 patients. Consecutive measurements, performed in fourteen ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients, pointed to a significant decrease in FXIII activity from the average of 85.7±28.2 %, (which is in the normal range), to an average of 68.0±20.4 %, below the low normal range, within 6.4±3.4 days of ICU hospitalization. Liver functions did not differentiate between patients with low and normal FXIII activity. No inhibitor to FXIII activity was found in the plasma of severe COVID-19 patients. Levels of FXIII-A antigen correlated with FXIII activity, and were low in severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low FXIII activity levels were found in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU, with gradual decline during their hospitalization. A mechanism of consumption may account for the low FXIII activity in these patients.

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(1): 100492, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exclusion of pregnant women from initial COVID-19 messenger RNA vaccine trials raised hesitancy regarding the benefits of vaccination for pregnant women, hence little is known about vaccines' efficacy in this population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal-neonatal transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among vaccinated parturient women. A control group of COVID-19-recovered patients was included to compare the immunoglobulin G levels between vaccinated and recovered patients. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in a single tertiary medical center in Israel between February and March 2021; parturient women vaccinated with the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine during pregnancy were included and compared with COVID-19-recovered parturient women. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured in maternal and cord sera, dried blood spot samples taken from newborns, and breast milk samples. The primary aim was to determine whether neonatal cord and dried blood spot samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and to evaluate the transfer ratio, defined as cord blood immunoglobulin G divided by maternal immunoglobulin G levels. RESULTS: The study included 64 vaccinated parturient women and 11 parturient women who had COVID-19 during pregnancy. All maternal blood sera samples and 98.3% of the cord blood sera samples were positive for SARS-Cov-2 immunoglobulin G with median concentrations of 26.1 (interquartile range, 22.0-39.7) and 20.2 (interquartile range, 12.7-29.0), respectively. Similarly, 96.4% of neonatal blood spot samples and all breast milk samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G with median concentrations of 11.0 (interquartile range, 7.2-12.8) and 4.9 (interquartile range, 3.8-6.0), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between maternal serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G and cord blood (r=0.483; P=.0001), neonatal blood spot (r=0.515; P=.004), and breast milk levels (r=0.396; P=.005) of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. The median placental transfer ratio of SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G was 0.77. Comparison of vaccinated and recovered COVID-19 patients revealed significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels in maternal serum and cord blood among vaccinated women (P<.0001). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the efficient transfer of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G across the placenta in women, vaccinated with the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine during pregnancy, to their neonates, with a positive correlation between maternal serum and cord blood antibody concentrations. In addition to maternal protection against COVID-19, the vaccine may also provide neonatal humoral immunity.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2444-e2449, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue fever are difficult to distinguish given shared clinical and laboratory features. Failing to consider COVID-19 due to false-positive dengue serology can have serious implications. We aimed to assess this possible cross-reactivity. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data and serum samples from 55 individuals with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To assess dengue serology status, we used dengue-specific antibodies by means of lateral-flow rapid test, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, we tested SARS-CoV-2 serology status in patients with dengue and performed in-silico protein structural analysis to identify epitope similarities. RESULTS: Using the dengue lateral-flow rapid test we detected 12 positive cases out of the 55 (21.8%) COVID-19 patients versus zero positive cases in a control group of 70 healthy individuals (P = 2.5E-5). This includes 9 cases of positive immunoglobulin M (IgM), 2 cases of positive immunoglobulin G (IgG), and 1 case of positive IgM as well as IgG antibodies. ELISA testing for dengue was positive in 2 additional subjects using envelope protein directed antibodies. Out of 95 samples obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue before September 2019, SARS-CoV-2 serology targeting the S protein was positive/equivocal in 21 (22%) (16 IgA, 5 IgG) versus 4 positives/equivocal in 102 controls (4%) (P = 1.6E-4). Subsequent in-silico analysis revealed possible similarities between SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in the HR2 domain of the spike protein and the dengue envelope protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support possible cross-reactivity between dengue virus and SARS-CoV-2, which can lead to false-positive dengue serology among COVID-19 patients and vice versa. This can have serious consequences for both patient care and public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(24): e84, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccine coverage and effectiveness, the incidence of symptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been increasing in Israel. Whether the increasing incidence of infection is due to waning immunity after the receipt of two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month longitudinal prospective study involving vaccinated health care workers who were tested monthly for the presence of anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Linear mixed models were used to assess the dynamics of antibody levels and to determine predictors of antibody levels at 6 months. RESULTS: The study included 4868 participants, with 3808 being included in the linear mixed-model analyses. The level of IgG antibodies decreased at a consistent rate, whereas the neutralizing antibody level decreased rapidly for the first 3 months with a relatively slow decrease thereafter. Although IgG antibody levels were highly correlated with neutralizing antibody titers (Spearman's rank correlation between 0.68 and 0.75), the regression relationship between the IgG and neutralizing antibody levels depended on the time since receipt of the second vaccine dose. Six months after receipt of the second dose, neutralizing antibody titers were substantially lower among men than among women (ratio of means, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.75), lower among persons 65 years of age or older than among those 18 to less than 45 years of age (ratio of means, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.70), and lower among participants with immunosuppression than among those without immunosuppression (ratio of means, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Six months after receipt of the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, humoral response was substantially decreased, especially among men, among persons 65 years of age or older, and among persons with immunosuppression.

8.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 7: 100150, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300933

ABSTRACT

Background: BNT162b2 was shown to be 92% effective in preventing COVID-19. Prioritizing vaccine rollout, and achievement of herd immunity depend on SARS-CoV-2 transmission reduction. The vaccine's effect on infectivity is thus a critical priority. Methods: Among all 9650 HCW of a large tertiary medical center in Israel, we calculated the prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR cases with asymptomatic presentation, tested following known or presumed exposure and the infectious subset (N-gene-Ct-value<30) of these. Additionally, infection incidence rates were calculated for symptomatic cases and infectious (Ct<30) cases. Vaccine effectiveness within three months of vaccine rollout was measured as one minus the relative risk or rate ratio, respectively. To further assess infectiousness, we compared the mean Ct-value and the proportion of infections with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen test of vaccinated vs. unvaccinated. The correlation between IgG levels within the week before detection and Ct level was assessed. Findings: Reduced prevalence among fully vaccinated HCW was observed for (i) infections detected due to exposure, with asymptomatic presentation (VE(i)=65.1%, 95%CI 45-79%), (ii) the presumed infectious (Ct<30) subset of these (VE(ii)=69.6%, 95%CI 43-84%) (iii) never-symptomatic infections (VE(iii)=72.3%, 95%CI 48-86%), and (iv) the presumed infectious (Ct<30) subset (VE(iv)=83.0%, 95%CI 51-94%).Incidence of (v) symptomatic and (vi) symptomatic-infectious cases was significantly lower among fully vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals (VE(v)= 89.7%, 95%CI 84-94%, VE(vi)=88.1%, 95%CI 80-95%).The mean Ct-value was significantly higher in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated (27.3±1.2 vs. 22.2±1.0, p<0.001) and the proportion of positive SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests was also significantly lower among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated PCR-positive HCW (80% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Lower infectivity was correlated with higher IgG concentrations (R=0.36, p=0.01). Interpretation: These results suggest that BNT162b2 is moderately to highly effective in reducing infectivity, via preventing infection and through reducing viral shedding. Funding: Sheba Medical Center, Israel.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29: 100651, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933030

ABSTRACT

Background: An Israeli national taskforce performed a multi-center clinical and analytical validation of seven serology assays to determine their utility and limitations for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Methods: Serology assays from Roche, Abbott, Diasorin, BioMerieux, Beckman-Coulter, Siemens, and an in-house RBD ELISA were included. Negative samples from 2391 individuals representative of the Israeli population, and 698 SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients, collected between March and May 2020, were analyzed. Findings: Immunoassays sensitivities between 81.5%-89.4% and specificities between 97.7%-100% resulted in a profound impact on the expected Positive Predictive Value (PPV) in low (<15%) prevalence scenarios. No meaningful increase was detected in the false positive rate in children compared to adults. A positive correlation between disease severity and antibody titers, and no decrease in antibody titers in the first 8 weeks after PCR positivity was observed. We identified a subgroup of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (~5% of patients), who remained seronegative across a wide range of antigens, isotypes, and technologies. Interpretation: The commercially available automated immunoassays exhibit significant differences in performance and expected PPV in low prevalence scenarios. The low false-positivity rate in under 20's suggests that cross-reactive immunity from previous CoV strains is unlikely to explain the milder disease course in children. Finding no decrease in antibody titers in the first 8 weeks is in contrast to some reports of short half-life for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The ~5% who were seronegative non-responders, using multiple assays in a population-wide manner, represents the proportion of patients that may be at risk for re-infection. Funding: Israel Ministry of Health.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...