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1.
The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online) ; 136(1573):67-76, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2294393

ABSTRACT

The study also explored i) the associations between skin-to-deltoid-muscle distance across the three recommended sites with sex, body mass index (BMI), and arm circumference, and ii) the proportion of participants with a skin-to-deltoid-muscle distance >20 millimetres (mm), in whom the standard 25mm needle length would not ensure deposition of vaccine within the deltoid muscle. method: When choosing the required needle length to achieve intramuscular vaccination in obese vaccine recipients, consideration needs to be given to the injection site location, sex, BMI and/or arm circumference, as these factors all influence the skin-to-deltoid-muscle distance. Published data report that a standard needle length (25mm) is suitable for most people with a body mass index (BMI) <25 kilograms [kg]/m2.48 However, progressively higher BMIs increase the likelihood of requiring a longer-than-standard needle length for deltoid intramuscular injection.810 Worldwide, immunisation guidelines vary in their instructions on how to choose the correct needle length based on BMI and body weight, or contain non-specific terms such as "larger arms".1113 An accurate measurement of BMI for a vaccine recipient is not always readily available and the interpretation of arm size is subjective, resulting in an increased risk of inappropriate needle length choice and subcutaneous vaccine delivery. An observational study of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, administered with needles of different lengths at the discretion of the vaccinator, did not demonstrate a difference in immunogenicity between those vaccinated with a needle of sufficient versus insufficient length to achieve intramuscular deposition of vaccine.14 However, there is evidence that intramuscular injection results in significantly better immune response compared to subcutaneous delivery of influenza and hepatitis B vaccines.15 Further, there is high-grade evidence that subcutaneous administration of different vaccine types (adjuvanted, live virus and non-adjuvanted) is associated with increased local side effects including abscess and granuloma formation, compared to intramuscular delivery.15" The location of the deltoid intramuscular injection site is defined variably between countries based on anatomical landmarks (Figure 1).

2.
Vaccine ; 41(16): 2690-2695, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257503

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate thresholds for Body Mass Index (BMI) and arm circumference above which a longer needle is needed to ensure intramuscular (IM) delivery of a vaccine in the deltoid muscle at the site recommended by New Zealand (NZ) immunization guidelines. METHODS: A combined analysis of two studies, including 442 adults, with measurements of arm circumference, BMI and skin to deltoid muscle distance (SDMD) at the NZ immunization guideline-recommended IM injection site. Receiver Operator Characteristic curves identified arm circumference and BMI cut-points that gave 100% sensitivity for SDMD thresholds. These thresholds were: SDMD of 20 mm, accounting for a minimal penetration of 5 mm into muscle with the standard needle; and 25 mm, which is the length of a standard needle for IM injection, representing the depth this can reach. RESULTS: Cut-point values for arm circumference, at which a longer needle would be required, were higher for males than females: 35 cm versus 30 cm for the 20 mm cut-point, and 40 cm versus 36.7 cm for the 25 mm cut-point respectively. The BMI cut-points were also higher for male than females: 24.6 kg/m2 versus 23.7 kg/m2 for the 20 mm cut-point, and 38.2 kg/m2 vs 31.6 kg/m2 for the 25 mm cut-point respectively. CONCLUSION: Arm circumference and BMI cut-points provide practical measures from which to choose a needle length that increases the chance of successful IM vaccination. Based on our data, an arm circumference of 35 cm for men and 30 cm for women should prompt selection of a longer needle to ensure intramuscular injection at the deltoid site. Thresholds for the different skin to deltoid sites proposed internationally should be determined to enable successful IM vaccination in clinical practice beyond NZ.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Skin , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Injections, Intramuscular , New Zealand , Body Mass Index
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e063530, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) Assess the distribution of skin-to-deltoid-muscle distance (SDMD) at the deltoid intramuscular (IM) injection site; (2) its relationship with demographic and anthropometric variables and (3) Consider the findings in relation to clinical guidance on IM injection, such as COVID-19 vaccines. DESIGN: Systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS between June and July 2021 with no publication date limit. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting measurements of the SDMD in living adults aged 16 years and older, at the deltoid IM injection site, published in English were considered. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers performed each stage of screening, data extraction and quality assessments using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for analytical cross sectional studies. RESULTS: 16 105 papers were identified, of which 11 studies were suitable for review, representing 1414 participants. Heterogeneity in the definition of the deltoid IM injection site, locations measured and methods of measurement precluded meta-analysis. Evidence from ultrasound SDMD measurements demonstrated some patients in all but 'underweight' body mass index (BMI) categories, may require needles longer than 25 mm for successful IM injection. Calliper measurements overestimated SDMD compared with ultrasound. Female sex, higher BMI categories and greater weight in women were associated with greater SDMD. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed evidence was insufficient to inform definitive needle length 'cut points' for IM injection based on demographic or anthropomorphic variables. Contemporary clinical guidance currently based on this evidence, including the site of injection and choice of needle length, may result in subcutaneous administration in a small proportion of recipients, particularly if obese or of female sex. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021264625.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Needles
4.
Vaccine X ; 13: 100248, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159372

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of adult diabetics with a skin to deltoid muscle distance (SDMD) of > 25 mm, representing a distance greater than the standard needle length used for intramuscular COVID-19 vaccination, and to assess whether anthropometric measurements predict ultrasound SDMD measurements. Design: Non-interventional cross-sectional study. Setting: Single site, non-clinical setting, Wellington, New Zealand. Participants: One hundred participants (50 females) aged at least 18 years diagnosis with diabetes. All participants completed the study. Main outcome measures: The proportions of participants with a SDMD > 25 mm and a SDMD > 20 mm (indicating that the needle would not have penetrated at least 5 mm into the deltoid, which is considered necessary to ensure deposition of vaccine into muscle); the relationship between anthropometric measurements (body weight, body height, body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, arm circumference) and SDMD measured by ultrasound. Results: The proportion (95 %CI) of participants with a SDMD > 25 mm was 6/100; 6 % (2.2 to 12.6), and the proportion with a SDMD > 20 mm was 11 % (5.6 to 18.8), of which 9/11 had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and 9/11 were female. The strongest relationships between anthropometric measurements and SDMD were with arm circumference (r = 0.76, P < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Arm circumference and BMI were the best predictors of SDMD measurements with AUC for ROC curves of 0.99 and 0.94 above the 25 mm cut point, 0.97 and 0.89 above the 20 mm cut point respectively. Conclusions: The standard needle length of 25 mm is likely to be insufficient to ensure deposition of COVID-19 vaccine within the deltoid muscle in a small but important proportion of obese adults with diabetes. Arm circumference and BMI are simple measurements that could identify those that need a long needle to ensure successful intramuscular vaccine administration. Funding: Ruth Maud Ring Spencer Estate; Health Research Council of New Zealand (Independent Research Organisation).

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(1)2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been considerable international variation in mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences between mortality registered as due to COVID-19 and the excess all-cause mortality reported in countries worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Ecological analysis of 22 countries compared 5-year historical all-cause mortality, reported all-cause mortality and expected all-cause mortality (calculated as historical mortality plus the reported deaths attributed to COVID-19). Data available from the first week of January 2020 to that most recently available were analysed. RESULTS: Compared to the preceding 5 years, there was an excess of 716 616 deaths, of which 64.3% were attributed to COVID-19. The proportion of deaths registered as COVID-19-related/excess deaths varied markedly between countries, ranging between 30% and 197% in those countries that had an excess of deaths during the period of observation. In most countries where a definite peak in COVID-19-related deaths occurred, the increase in reported all-cause mortality preceded the increase in COVID-19 reported mortality. During the latter period of observation, a few countries reported fewer all-cause deaths than the historical figures. CONCLUSION: The increases in all-cause mortality preceded the increase in COVID-19 mortality in most countries that had definite spikes in COVID-19 mortality. The number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 was underestimated by at least 35%. Together these findings suggest that calculation of excess all-cause mortality is a better predictor of COVID-19 mortality than the reported rates, in those countries experiencing definite increases in mortality.

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