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1.
4th International Conference on Communication Systems, Computing and IT Applications, CSCITA 2023 ; : 90-95, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322769

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the creation of vaccination passports as a means of verifying an individual's vaccination status for travel and access to certain services. The validity of immunization records and supply chain procedures, however, are significant issues. The supply chain for vaccination passports has been called for to be made more secure and transparent using blockchain technology. To ensure safe and effective supply chain management, this article suggests a blockchain-based authentication mechanism for vaccination passports. The issuer, the prover, and the verifier will be the system's three key actors. The issuer will be in charge of producing inventory tokens and providing immunization certificates. The prover will verify the authenticity of the vaccination supply chain, and the verifier will ensure that the inventory token is legitimate. The proposed system will enhance transparency, security, and efficiency in the supply chain for vaccination passports, thereby improving the trustworthiness of vaccination records and facilitating safe travel during the pandemic. © 2023 IEEE.

2.
4th International Conference on Communication Systems, Computing and IT Applications, CSCITA 2023 ; : 219-224, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322768

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted a major flaw in the current medical oxygen supply chain and inventory management system. This shortcoming caused the deaths of several patients which could have been avoided by accurate prediction of the oxygen demand and the distribution of oxygen cylinders. To avoid such calamities in the future, this paper proposes an Internet of Everything (IoE) based solution which forecasts the demand for oxygen with 80-85% accuracy. The predicted variable of expected patients enables the system to calculate the requirement of oxygen up to the next 30 days from the initiation of data collection. The system is scalable and if implemented on a city or district level, will help in the fair distribution of medical oxygen resources and will save human lives during extreme load on the supply chain. © 2023 IEEE.

6.
Academic Voices: A Conversation on New Approaches to Teaching and Learning in the post-COVID World ; : 185-196, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035575

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created a natural experiment in which everyone taught and learned online regardless of preference and without the usual months of preparation. The new online participants along with economic, physical and mental health concerns lead to innovations in teaching. We turned to Carello’s (2020) Principles of Trauma-Informed Teaching and Learning (TITL) and Moore’s (1996) Theory of Transactional Distance (TTD) as paradigms to help us chart a course forward. We explore the principles of TITL through illustrative examples from our blended learning courses and share qualitative insights for teaching in the postpandemic world. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1248, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967431

ABSTRACT

commonly worldwide but their effectiveness in participants with cirrhosis is unknown. We explored the effectiveness of vaccination with the Janssen Ad.26.COV2.S compared to the mRNA Pfizer BNT162b2 or Moderna 1273-mRNA vaccine in participants with cirrhosis. Method: This was a test-negative case control study among participants with cirrhosis. This study design is widely used in evaluations of vaccine effectiveness and has the advantage of minimizing biases associated with access to vaccination or health care. Cases were those who were SARS CoV2 PCR positive, controls were those who tested negative during the study period between March 15, 2021 and October 3, 2021. Participants who did not undergo SARS CoV2 PCR testing, who had COVID-19 before the study period, or received a liver transplant, were excluded. COVID-19 was classified based on individual chart review using the National Institute of Health (NIH) COVID-19 severity scale as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe or critical illness. Propensity score matching was used to match test positive cases and test negative controls. The propensity score of having COVID-19 were derived from a logistic regression that adjusted for the participant's sex, age, date of testing, race/ethnicity, location, alcohol as the etiology of liver disease, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, current tobacco use, current alcohol use, co-morbidities, and the Child Turcotte Pugh score. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit for COVID-19, to assess the adjusted effect from vaccination with either the Ad.26.COV2.S or the mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccines. Results: A total of 955 cases and 955 matched controls were included in the study population. The two groups were well matched to all baseline characteristics. The Ad.26.COV2.S vaccine had an effectiveness of 64% against COVID-19 (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.62, p=0.005). Effectiveness was lowest with asymptomatic illness (aOR 0.42, 0.18-0.73, p=0.03), and higher against mild (aOR 0.36, 0.15-0.63, p= 0.006), moderate (aOR 0.33, 0.14-0.49, p=0.002) and severe/critical (aOR 0.24, 0.08-0.83, p=0.04) COVID-19. In the same period, mRNA vaccines had a 73% effectiveness against overall COVID-19 (aOR 0.27, 0.19-0.37, p<0.0001), progressively higher from asymptomatic (aOR 0.38, 0.23-0.59, p=0.0004) to mild (aOR 0.29, 0.18-0.42, p<0.0001), moderate (aOR 0.27, 0.18-0.36, p<0.0001), and severe or critical illness (aOR 0.17, 0.06-0.32, p<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the viral vector and mRNA vaccines. Conclusion: In participants with cirrhosis, the Ad.26.COV2.S demonstrated a 64% effectiveness against COVID-19, and a 74% effectiveness against severe or critical COVID-19, similar to that associated with mRNA vaccines. (Figure Presented)

10.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1137, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967412

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Immunity to Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be either infection-induced or vaccine-induced. The duration of protective immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection and how this compares with that from vaccination is presently unclear. Cirrhosis is associated with vaccine hyporesponsiveness to several vaccines include COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. The objective of our study was to compare infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity against COVID-19 among patients with cirrhosis. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study among patients with cirrhosis. Vaccine-induced immunity group was defined as participants with cirrhosis who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA vaccine and received the first dose of the mRNA vaccine between 12/18/2020 and 4/1/2021. Infection-induced immunity was defined as participants who had their first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR in the same study period. The outcome was a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR more than 60 days after previous infection or vaccination. Patients were followed until the outcome, death or the end of the study period (11/16/21). COVID-19 cases were classified based on individual chart review using the National Institute of Health (NIH) COVID-19 severity scale as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe or critical illness. The two groups were matched 1:3 using propensity score (PS) matching, with PS scores calculated based on variables associated with COVID-19 severity, including for the date of infection or first dose of vaccnation, and location, to account for variants. Cox proportional hazards models were fit from the immunity generating event to outcome (SARS-CoV-2PCR). Logistic regression models were also fit for the outcome (positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR) after the immunity generating event. Results: There were 443 participants in the infection-induced group, that were PS matched with 1,329 participants in the vaccine-induced group. The two groups were well matched after PS matching. On multivariable Cox hazard model, vaccine-induced immunity was associated with a 75% reduction in COVID-19 compared to infection-induced immunity (adjusted Hazard Ratio 0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.43, p<0.0001). On multinomial logistic regression analysis, vaccine-induced immunity was associated with a 80% reduction in asymptomatic (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 0.20, 95% CI 0.09-0.47, p-0.0002), 64% reduction in mild (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.97, p=0.048), and 79% reduction in severe or critical COVID-19 (aOR 0.21,95% CI 0.06-0.74, p=0.02) compared to infection-induced immunity. There were no observed differences between the two groups for moderate COVID-19 (aOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.06-1.56, p=0.16). Conclusions: In participants with cirrhosis, vaccine-induced immunity is associated with a significantly greater protection against COVID-19 compared to infection-induced immunity.[Figure Presented]

11.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:4503-4516, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874782

ABSTRACT

“Do not put all eggs in one basket”. This risk management principle applies to every other industry whether it be manufacturing or banking. Interest income is believed to be a bank's primary source of income. Banks diversify their operations to generate non-interest income and lower their total risk exposure. Applying panel-data regression, the study analyzes and compares the intensity of diversification of income sources between public and private sector banks in India, using secondary data for Indian financial years 2012-13 to 2020-21. It utilizes RAROA and z-score to examine the impact of income diversification on profitability and risk, respectively. It discovered that private banks are more diversified than public banks. With low levels of diversification, public banks had a positive impact on profitability and risk. This is evident from research that banks leverage income diversification as a tool to fight covid-19 backed slowdown. © The Electrochemical Society

12.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109(SUPPL 1):i63-i64, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769183

ABSTRACT

Aim: During the Covid-19 pandemic there has been a gross effect on surgical training at all grades. A cohort that has been affected but reported less frequently are medical students and foundation doctors (junior trainees), whose interest in the field and clinical skills may have been affected by reduced service provision. Method: A survey of junior trainees was conducted to analyse their perceived adequacy of surgical teaching in light of the effect of Covid-19. An online teaching course was then designed to target areas of weakness identified in the survey. The content was designed with the Imperial College London surgery curriculum and was vetted by a consultant surgeon. Results: Of the 713 people surveyed, 393 (55%) had received little or no surgical teaching and 496 (70%) respondents said they were 'not' or 'slightly' confident in managing common and emergency surgical presentations. A free text box highlighted that deteriorating patients, clinical decision-making, and initiating management were the greatest concerns. This was used to design an international online teaching course for junior trainees, that focused explicitly on clinical care. The sessions were run live on MindTheBleep via Facebook live, to answer questions in real time and examine cases with live audience participation, receiving feedback after every session. This model has reached trainees in >30 countries with >200 feedback responses and an average rating of 4.5/5. Conclusions: Junior trainees are a key cohort whose interest and education in surgery has suffered due to the pandemic. An innovative, online, clinically orientated course is assisting to re-engage trainees internationally.

13.
Stroke ; 52(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234382

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the importance of time to endovascular therapy (EVT) on clinical outcomes in large vessel occlusion (LVO) acute ischemic stroke. Delays to treatment are particularly prevalent when patients require a transfer from hospitals without EVT capability onsite. A novel computer aided triage system, Viz LVO, has the potential to streamline workflows. This platform includes an image viewer, communication system, and an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm that automatically identifies suspected LVO strokes on CTA imaging and rapidly triggers alerts. We hypothesize that the Viz application will decrease timeto- treatment. Methods: A prospective database was assessed for patients who presented to a stroke center utilizing Viz LVO in the Mount Sinai Health System in New York and underwent EVT following transfer for LVO stroke between July 2018 and March 2020. This time period was chosen due to the COVID-19 pandemic affecting stroke workflow after March 2020. Time intervals were compared for 55 patients divided into Pre- and Post-Viz cohorts. Results: The median initial door-to-neuroendovascular team (NT) notification time interval was significantly faster (25.0 minutes [IQR=12.0] vs 40.0 minutes [IQR=61.0];p=0.01) with significantly less variation (p<0.05). The median initial door-to-skin puncture time interval was 25 minutes shorter in the Post-Viz cohort, although not statistically significant (p=0.15). Post Viz LVO implementation, the Viz notification was the first NT notification 38% (10/26) of the time. Conclusions: Our preliminary results have shown that Viz LVO implementation is associated with earlier, more consistent NT notification times and potentially treatment times. This platform presents a novel application of AI that can serve as an early warning system and a failsafe to ensure that no LVO is left behind. Further studies are warranted.(Figure Presented).

14.
Annals of the American Thoracic Society ; 18(5):838-847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209735

ABSTRACT

Rationale: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, many intensive care units (ICUs) have shifted communication with patients' families toward chiefly telehealth methods (phone and video) to reduce COVID-19 transmission. Family and clinician perspectives about phone and video communication in the ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic are not yet well understood. Increased knowledge about clinicians' and families' experiences with telehealth may help to improve the quality of remote interactions with families during periods of hospital visitor restrictions during COVID-19. Objectives: To explore experiences, perspectives, and attitudes of family members and ICU clinicians about phone and video interactions during COVID-19 hospital visitor restrictions.

15.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1804-1808, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724798

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. There is a scarcity of data on coronavirus disease 2019-related brain imaging features. We present 5 cases that illustrate varying imaging presentations of acute encephalopathy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. MR features include leukoencephalopathy, diffusion restriction that involves the GM and WM, microhemorrhages, and leptomeningitis. We believe it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the neuroradiologic imaging spectrum of acute encephalopathy in the coronavirus disease 2019 population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Adult , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(6): 960-965, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642792

ABSTRACT

During the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic, neuroradiology practices have experienced a paradigm shift in practice, which affected everything from staffing, workflow, work volumes, conferences, resident and fellowship education, and research. This article highlights adaptive strategies that were undertaken at the epicenter of the outbreak in New York City during the past 4-6 weeks, as experienced by 5 large neuroradiology academic departments.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Neurology/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiology/organization & administration , Workflow , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , New York City , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
17.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(8): 1361-1364, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an active worldwide pandemic with diverse complications. Stroke as a presentation has not been strongly associated with COVID-19. The authors aimed to retrospectively review a link between COVID-19 and acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 41 cases and 82 control subjects matched by age, sex, and risk factors. Cases were patients who underwent stroke alert imaging with confirmed acute stroke on imaging between March 16 and April 5, 2020, at 6 hospitals across New York City. Control subjects were those who underwent stroke alertimaging during the same timeframe without imaging evidence of acute infarction. Data pertaining to diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, patient demographics, and risk factors were collected. A univariate analysis was performed to assess the covariate effect of risk factors and COVID-19 status on stroke imaging with positive findings. RESULTS: The mean age for cases and controls was 65.5 ± 15.3 years and 68.8 ± 13.2 years, respectively. Of patients with acute ischemic stroke, 46.3% had COVID-19 infection compared with 18.3% of controls (P = .001). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors, COVID-19 infection had a significant independent association with acute ischemic stroke compared with control subjects (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7-8.9; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that COVID-19 infection is significantly associated with imaging confirmation of acute ischemic stroke, and patients with COVID-19 should undergo more aggressive monitoring for stroke.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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