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1.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S247, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244376

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Social determinants of health (SDoH) including income, education, employment, and housing are known to affect health outcomes;while use in real-world database studies are limited. This study assessed socioeconomic differences in burden of disease and utilization of COVID-19 specific medications in a large cohort of patients in the US. Method(s): A total of 17,682,111 patients having a COVID-19 diagnosis between 4/1/2020 and 4/30/2022 were identified in the IQVIA longitudinal medical and pharmacy claims databases of >277 million patients. For SDoH, a 3-digit zip code median Area Deprivation Index (ADI) (v2.0 University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health 2015) was calculated for each patient, maintaining patient privacy. The ADI is a validated tool ranking neighborhoods by socioeconomic disadvantage. Medical and pharmacy utilization was assessed and stratified by ADI pentiles, where 0-20 was the least disadvantaged, and 81-100 was the most disadvantaged. Result(s): The proportion of patients having a claim with COVID-19 diagnosis was higher in the most disadvantaged (7.75%) compared to the least disadvantaged group (5.94%) (US overall: 6.37%). Medical claims prior to COVID-19 diagnosis were highest in the least disadvantaged, while prior pharmacy utilization was highest in the most-disadvantaged group. There was sparse use of COVID-19 medications overall;the least disadvantaged patients had the lowest use of COVID-19 specific medications. Casirivimab/imdevimab use was highest in the 61-80 (2.01%) and 81-100 (1.79%) ADI groups, and remdesivir use was highest in the moderately disadvantaged (ADI 41-60 and 61-80) groups (both 2.33%). Utilization of hydroxychloroquine (unapproved for COVID-19) increased from 0.91% in the least to 2.13% in the most disadvantaged groups. Conclusion(s): This study shows unequal burden of COVID-19 prevalence by SDoH, with the most disadvantaged having a higher disease burden and utilization of certain approved and unapproved COVID-19 medications, highlighting the need for further study of the reasons for these disparities.Copyright © 2023

2.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S365, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244375

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 infected over 150 million people and caused over 1 million deaths in the US. This study evaluates several variables thought to be associated with mortality risk in the COVID-19 population. Method(s): The IQVIA longitudinal medical and pharmacy claims databases identified 17,682,111 patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis between 4/1/2020-4/30/2022 from a population of >277 million patients in the US. Patients were linked to Veritas Data Research fact-of-death records (90% complete compared to CDC reporting) and confirmed deaths were flagged. Confirmed mortality rates (CMR) were evaluated by age group, socioeconomic status (SES) using the Area Deprivation Index (v2.0, University of Wisconsin, 2015), co-morbidities and COVID-specific (approved and unapproved) treatments. Result(s): Of the 563,744 patients (3.2%) identified as dead (3.67% in men, 2.85% in women overall), CMR was lowest in patients aged 0-17 (0.08%), highest in age 65-75 (5.92%) and >75 (16.40%). Patients in the lowest 40% of SES had CMR of 4.43% while in the highest 20% was 1.56%. Respiratory failure, pneumonia and sepsis were the most common acute diagnoses accompanying COVID-19 deaths in all SES. In patients with comorbid dementia or Alzheimer's disease, CMR were 21.62% and 23.40% respectively. Additionally, congestive heart failure (15.79%), atrial fibrillation (15.50%), chronic kidney disease (15.30%) and COPD (12.19%) were associated with high CMR. Among patients receiving approved therapies, casirivimab/imdevimab and remdesivir had CMR of 1.41% and 12.63% respectively, while for those receiving unapproved therapies, ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine had CMR of 2.54% and 2.45%. Conclusion(s): Compared to the 1.1% case-mortality rate (Johns Hopkins 2023) among US COVID-19 patients, we found CMR exceeded 3% among those with a medical claim for COVID-19. Advanced age, dementia, and cardio-renal disease were associated with mortality. Patients with the lowest SES had approximately 3 times the confirmed mortality rate compared to those in the highest SES group.Copyright © 2023

3.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S195, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235007

ABSTRACT

Objectives: According to the CDC, as of December 2022, almost one in three Americans had confirmed COVID-19 infection;yet only a small portion generated healthcare claims related to COVID-19. Higher burden of COVID-19 cases in Northeastern states compared to other US regions has been documented. This study examined the regional variation in demographic characteristics and treatment patterns among patients with a claim for COVID-19 in a nationwide US claims database. Method(s): Analysis of data from over 277 million patients in IQVIA's longitudinal medical and pharmacy claims databases resulted in a cohort of 17,682,111 patients with COVID-19 diagnosis between 4/1/2020 and 4/30/2022. Demographic characteristics and treatment rates for key approved and un-approved COVID-19 therapies were assessed and stratified by region. Result(s): Among patients in the database, 6.4% had a COVID-19 diagnosis. The proportion was higher in the Northeast (7.1%) and South (6.9%) compared with the West (4.8%). The highest proportion of patients were aged 18-44 years (32.7% in South to 35.2% in West). Over a fifth of the patients were >= 65 years old (US overall= 23.7%;22.5% in Northeast to 25.8% in Midwest). Approximately 57% of the patients nationally and within each region were women. For approved medications, utilization ranged from 1.7% in Northeast to 2.7% in Midwest (overall:2.2%) for remdesivir;0.7% in Northeast to 2.2% in South (overall: 1.5%) for casirivimab/imdevimab. For unapproved medications, utilization ranged from 0.9% in Northeast to 1.6% in South (overall:1.3%) for hydroxychloroquine and 0.4% in Northeast to 1.8% in South (overall:1.1%) for ivermectin. Conclusion(s): Less than one in five US cases of COVID-19 had a claim with diagnosis of COVID-19. Use of COVID-19 specific medications remained low throughout the pandemic. Despite the higher disease burden, proportion of patients with claims and receiving COVID-19 treatment were low nationally, particularly in the northeast US region.Copyright © 2023

4.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; 23(2):877-888, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2240578

ABSTRACT

Smart sensing technology has been playing tremendous roles in digital healthcare management over time with great impacts. Lately, smart sensing has awoken the world by the advent of smart face masks (SFMs) in the global fight against the deadly Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. In turn, a number of research studies on innovative SFM architectures and designs are emerging. However, there is currently no study that has systematically been conducted to identify and comparatively analyze the emerging architectures and designs of SFMs, their contributions, socio-technological implications, and current challenges. In this article, we investigate the emerging SFMs in response to Covid-19 pandemic and provide a concise review of their key features and characteristics, design, smart technologies, and architectures. We also highlight and discuss the socio-technological opportunities posed by the use of SFMs and finally present directions for future research. Our findings reveal four key features that can be used to evaluate SFMs to include reusability, self-power generation ability, energy awareness and aerosol filtration efficiency. We discover that SFM has potential for effective use in human tracking, contact tracing, disease detection and diagnosis or in monitoring asymptotic populations in future pandemics. Some SFMs have also been carefully designed to provide comfort and safety when used by patients with other respiratory diseases or comorbidities. However, some identified challenges include standards and quality control, ethical, security and privacy concerns. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

5.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2192000

ABSTRACT

Smart sensing technology has been playing tremendous roles in digital healthcare management over time with great impacts. Lately, smart sensing has awoken the world by the advent of Smart Face Masks (SFM) in the global fight against the deadly Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. In turn, a number of research studies on innovative SFM architectures and designs are emerging. However, there is currently no study that has systematically been conducted to identify and comparatively analyze the emerging architectures and designs of SFMs, their contributions, socio-technological implications, and current challenges. In this paper, we investigate the emerging SFMs in response to Covid-19 pandemic and provide a concise review of their key features and characteristics, design, smart technologies, and architectures. We also highlight and discuss the socio-technological opportunities posed by the use of SFMs and finally present directions for future research. Our findings reveal four key features that can be used to evaluate SFMs to include reusability, self-power generation ability, energy awareness and aerosol filtration efficiency. We discover that SFM has potential for effective use in human tracking, contact tracing, disease detection and diagnosis or in monitoring asymptotic populations in future pandemics. Some SFMs have also been carefully designed to provide comfort and safety when used by patients with other respiratory diseases or comorbidities. However, some identified challenges include standards and quality control, ethical, security and privacy concerns. IEEE

6.
Medical Mycology ; 60(Supplement 1):112-113, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189364

ABSTRACT

Objective: Multipleinfections canoccur after2009, pandemicinfluenza, includingfungal andbacterial infections, but data from India are limited.To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of influenza-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA), caused by Aspergillus tamarii, after infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 which was preceded by COVID-19,20 months before. Methods andResults: A33-year-oldmale, knownasthmatic, hadbeen hospitalizedelsewhere inAugust 2020with COVID-19 pneumonia for 50 days and had been on mechanical ventilation for 37 days. He had no residual respiratory symptoms 3 months after recovery from COVID-19. He was admitted to Jupiter Hospital in April 2022 with fever, cough, and dyspnea for 8 days, which developed after a cold bath in a temple. HRCT (chest) showed ground glass opacities (GGOs), crazy paving, nodules, and traction bronchiectasis. Review of previous HRCT showed that only GGOs were present (Fig. 1). At admission, the nasopharyngeal swab was positive for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the filmarray respiratory panel and no other pathogen was detected. He was treated with oseltamivir. Expectorated sputum examination showed a heavy load of thin septate hyphae, with acute angle branching, resembling Aspergilllus species (Fig. 2). Serum galactomannan was positive (1.8).Based on these features he was diagnosed as a case of probable IAPA and initiated posaconazole (PCZ) treatment.Sputum fungal culture was positive and was identified by MALDI T OF MS as A. tamarii. A. tamarii has been rarely encountered as a human pathogen. Case reports of its involvement in eyelid infection, keratitis, invasive sinonasal infection, and onychomycosis exist. Sensititre MICs were 0.0625 mcg/ml, 0.125 mcg/ml, 0.0625 mcg/ml, and 0.125 mcg/mL for itraconazole, voriconazole, PCZ, and for isavuconazole (ISVCZ) respectively. The usually obtained PCZ trough level with standard dose is 1.2 mg/l which generates AUC of 200R.The usually obtained ISVC) trough level with standard dose is 3 mg/l which generates AUC of 100R. The PKPD index, AUC/MIC of 100, is needed with both these azoles for a therapeutic effectR. Therefore, it would be possible to treat this infection with any of these azoles. PCZ was continued in view of the easy availability of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to assure adequate drug expo-sure, lower cost, and clinical improvement which had already occurred. Conclusion(s): An infection due to a rare Aspergillus species needs correct identification, MIC determination, and PKPD consideration for appropriate drug selection and management.

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2545-A2546, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060958

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Signs and Symptoms of Chest Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Vaping products have been rapidly gaining popularity, with studies showing increasing use, even among school-going children and adolescents. E-cigarette or Vaping Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) is defined as respiratory failure within 90 days of e-cigarette use with pulmonary infiltrates on imaging, in the absence of infectious or alternative causes of respiratory failure.[1] Vitamin E acetate, a thickening agent in THC containing e-cigarettes, is thought to be the main causative agent of EVALI and has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage samples in almost all cases of EVALI.[2] However, diagnosing EVALI in this era of COVID -19 is a challenge due to striking similarities in clinical symptoms and imaging findings. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old male with anxiety and polysubstance abuse, presented with headache, cough, low-grade fevers and chills of 1 week. In the ED, he was febrile to 102 F and hypoxic to 89% on room air and was started on 3 liters of oxygen. Labs showed leukocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Urine toxicology was positive for THC. Chest X-ray showed bilateral interstitial opacities. CT angio of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities. Despite 2 negative PCR tests, suspicion for COVID was high and the patient was initially started on dexamethasone and other supplements, along with antibiotic coverage for a possible bacterial etiology. Despite this, respiratory symptoms and hypoxia continued to worsen. Infectious work up including blood, sputum cultures with AFB staining, urine streptococcus and legionella tested negative. The patient however now revealed the regular use of THC containing vape and procuring the THC oil from a new street vendor. This prompted us to suspect vaping induced chemical pneumonitis. He was restarted on steroid therapy with methylprednisolone and within 1 week, had symptomatic improvement and resolution of hypoxia. The patient was eventually discharged on prednisone taper over 7-10 days. DISCUSSION: Our patient was initially treated for COVID pneumonia despite repeated negative PCR tests, as findings were suggestive of SARS-COV-2 infection. Fortunately, the patient eventually revealed about regular use of THC-oil vapes, making us consider a diagnosis of vaping induced chemical pneumonitis. The mainstay of treatment is steroid therapy and cessation of e-cigarette use. The severity of the pandemic has led to a low threshold for suspecting COVID, causing increased anchoring and availability bias, and potentially under-diagnosing conditions like EVALI which resemble COVID infection.[3] CONCLUSIONS: While it is important to have a low threshold for suspecting COVID-19, considering other mimics of COVID is prudent for providing treatment in an appropriate and timely manner. Detailed inquiry of e-cigarette use, particularly THC-oil containing vapes, duration of use and source of procurement, goes a long way in diagnosing of EVALI. Reference #1: EVALI and the Pulmonary Toxicity of Electronic Cigarettes: A Review Lydia Winnicka, MD and Mangalore Amith Shenoy, MD PMCID: PMC7351931 PMID: 32246394 Reference #2: Clinical presentation, treatment, and short-term outcomes of lung injury associated with e-cigarettes or vaping: a prospective observational cohort study Denitza P Blagev 1, Dixie Harris 2, Angela C Dunn 3, David W Guidry 2, Colin K Grissom 4, Michael J Lanspa 5 PMID: 31711629 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32679-0 Reference #3: EVALI: A Mimicker of COVID-19 Mitchell M. Pitlick, MD,a Daenielle K. Lang, MD,a Anne M. Meehan, MBBCh, PhD,b and Christopher P. McCoy, MDb, PMCID: PMC8006188 PMID: 33817560 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kaushik Darbha No relevant relationships by Rashmikant Doshi No relevant relationships by Ishan Sahu No relevant relationships by sara samad

8.
1st International Conference on Computing, Communication and Green Engineering, CCGE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901429

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable changes in the academic Diaspora is the international creation of virtual platforms, which has given rise to a new edge system of learning. Covid-19 presents a unique and severe problem on every front. The nationwide shutdown by the administration aims to control the diffusion of Covid-19 at education institutions across the country. Many (local, national, and worldwide) institutions have implemented a reliable and beneficial contactless atmosphere for students and faculties to maintain the continuity of learning. As a result, teachers and students are greatly influenced by the new-age virtual teaching method adopted and implemented. The survey respondents were picked by a combination of online surveys and personality tests, and then the questionnaire they were given included both closed- and open-ended items. The numbers of university and secondary school portals have recently seen an upward trend. So, to better investigate the abilities of teachers and learners to identify the efficiency of dominating content delivery methods, a hybrid approach of the exploratory study was employed. Students and faculty, 140 each who have taken web-based learning at 25 Indian institutions, are sampled using a snowball sampling methodology. The results of the t-test demonstrated a considerable divergence in teaching-learning impressions between faculty and students on three manifests ($\mathrm{p} < 0.005$). Learners' responses differed from faculty responses, and statistically significant differences were found, such as scientific material can be taught effectively online, improved technocratic pedagogy is the core part of e-learning, reliance on computers/connectivity. © 2021 IEEE.

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