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J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 967-975, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429245


BACKGROUND: Early convalescent plasma transfusion may reduce mortality in patients with nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study emulates a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data from a cohort of US veterans admitted to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility between 1 May and 17 November 2020 with nonsevere COVID-19. The intervention was convalescent plasma initiated within 2 days of eligibility. Thirty-day mortality was compared using cumulative incidence curves, risk differences, and hazard ratios estimated from pooled logistic models with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Of 11 269 eligible person-trials contributed by 4755 patients, 402 trials were assigned to the convalescent plasma group. Forty and 671 deaths occurred within the plasma and nonplasma groups, respectively. The estimated 30-day mortality risk was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0%-9.7%) in the plasma group and 6.2% (95% CI, 5.6%-7.0%) in the nonplasma group. The associated risk difference was 0.30% (95% CI, -2.30% to 3.60%) and the hazard ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, .64-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Our target trial emulation estimated no meaningful differences in 30-day mortality between nonsevere COVID-19 patients treated and untreated with convalescent plasma. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT04545047.

Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Veterans , Young Adult
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067417


A growing body of literature suggests that restrictive public health measures implemented to control COVID-19 have had negative impacts on physical activity. We examined how Stay Home orders in Houston, New York City, and Seattle impacted outdoor physical activity patterns, measured by daily bicycle and pedestrian count data. We assessed changes in activity levels between the period before and during Stay Home orders. Across all three cities, we found significant changes in bicycle and pedestrian counts from the period before to the period during Stay Home orders. The direction of change varied by location, likely due to differing local contexts and outbreak progression. These results can inform policy around the use of outdoor public infrastructure as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.

Bicycling , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Walking , Cities/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology