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Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693568


The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with rising numbers of patients worldwide, presents an urgent need for effective treatments. To date, there are no therapies or vaccines that are proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several potential candidates or repurposed drugs are under investigation, including drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and block infection. The most promising therapy to date is remdesivir, which is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for emergency use in adults and children hospitalized with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Herein we summarize the general features of SARS-CoV-2's molecular and immune pathogenesis and discuss available pharmacological strategies, based on our present understanding of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. Finally, we outline clinical trials currently in progress to investigate the efficacy of potential therapies for COVID-19.

Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(6): 1257-1265, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526015


To determine the epidemiology of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a remote region of China, far from Wuhan, we analyzed the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Gansu Province. From January 23 through February 3, 2020, a total of 35 (64.8%) of 54 reported cases were imported from COVID-19-epidemic areas. Characteristics that differed significantly during the first and second waves of illness in Gansu Province were mean patient age, occupation, having visited epidemic areas, and mode of transportation. Time from infection to illness onset for family clusters was shorter in Gansu Province than in Wuhan, consistent with shortened durations from onset to first medical visit or hospitalization. Spatial distribution pattern analysis indicated hot spots and spatial outliers in Gansu Province. As a result of adequate interventions, transmission of the COVID-19 virus in Gansu Province is decreasing.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Geographic Information Systems , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Spatial Analysis , Time Factors , Young Adult