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1.
The Sport Journal ; 25(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957922

ABSTRACT

Purpose: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, national restrictions were implemented limiting social gatherings and disrupting many facets of everyday life including sports. To gain a better understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the social and emotional well-being of children and adolescents in sports, the present study examined parental perspectives of female youth competitive cheerleaders during the national pandemic.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 40(6): 559-564, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944424

ABSTRACT

Given the renewed interest in vaccine development sparked by the COVID-19 pandemic, we are revisiting the current state of vaccine development for cancer prevention and treatment. Experts discuss different vaccine types, their antigens and modes of action, and where we stand on their clinical development, plus the challenges we need to overcome for their broad implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Vaccines , Neoplasms , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267388, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883695

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Screening and vaccination are essential in the fight against infectious diseases, but need to be integrated and customized based on community and disease characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To develop effective screening and vaccination strategies, customized for a college campus, to reduce COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, deaths, and peak hospitalizations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We construct a compartmental model of disease spread under vaccination and routine screening, and study the efficacy of four mitigation strategies (routine screening only, vaccination only, vaccination with partial or full routine screening), and a no-intervention strategy. The study setting is a hypothetical college campus of 5,000 students and 455 faculty members during the Fall 2021 academic semester, when the Delta variant was the predominant strain. For sensitivity analysis, we vary the screening frequency, daily vaccination rate, initial vaccine coverage, and screening and vaccination compliance; and consider scenarios that represent low/medium/high transmission and test efficacy. Model parameters come from publicly available or published sources. RESULTS: With low initial vaccine coverage (30% in our study), even aggressive vaccination and screening result in a high number of infections: 1,020 to 2,040 (1,530 to 2,480) with routine daily (every other day) screening of the unvaccinated; 280 to 900 with daily screening extended to the newly vaccinated in base- and worst-case scenarios, which respectively consider reproduction numbers of 4.75 and 6.75 for the Delta variant. CONCLUSION: Integrated vaccination and routine screening can allow for a safe opening of a college when both the vaccine effectiveness and the initial vaccine coverage are sufficiently high. The interventions need to be customized considering the initial vaccine coverage, estimated compliance, screening and vaccination capacity, disease transmission and adverse outcome rates, and the number of infections/peak hospitalizations the college is willing to tolerate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274667

ABSTRACT

As new COVID-19 variants emerge, and disease and population characteristics change, screening strategies may also need to change. We develop screening guidelines for the safe opening of college campuses, considering COVID-19 infections/hospitalizations/deaths; peak daily hospitalizations; and the tests required. Our compartmental model simulates disease spread on a college campus under co-circulating variants with different disease dynamics, considering: (i) the heterogeneity in disease transmission and outcomes for faculty/staff and students based on vaccination status and level of natural immunity; and (ii) variant- and dose-dependent vaccine efficacy. Using the Spring 2022 academic semester as a case study, we study various routine screening strategies, and find that screening the faculty/staff less frequently than the students, and/or the boosted and vaccinated less frequently than the unvaccinated, may avert a higher number of infections per test, compared to universal screening of the entire population at a common frequency. We also discuss key policy issues, including the need to revisit the mitigation objective over time, effective strategies that are informed by booster coverage, and if and when screening alone can compensate for low booster coverage.

5.
Cancer J ; 28(2): 151-156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764719

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Because of significant adaptations forced by the COVID-19 pandemic, resultant changes within health care delivery and clinical research introduced the potential for evaluation of novel evidence generation approaches in oncology. On July 26 and 27, 2021, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, National Cancer Policy Forum hosted a virtual workshop entitled "Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Workshop on Lessons Learned." This workshop examined changes in cancer care and cancer research that occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and considered lessons learned from that experience. The goal was to identify what changes could improve the delivery of high-quality cancer care and the conduct of cancer clinical trials in the postpandemic era, with an emphasis on health equity. How can we sustain the valuable lessons learned that might accelerate progress and enhance clinical evidence generation for patients and clinicians? In this overview, we discuss ways in which the COVID-19 experience has catalyzed research efficiencies as well as fostered a broader array of trial design and research methods that may facilitate improved cancer drug development during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics
6.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714257

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the US DEA allowed controlled substance prescriptions to be issued following a telemedicine encounter. This study evaluated changes in opioid prescribing in Kentucky counties with low and high rates of broadband subscription before, during, and after a series of statewide emergency declarations that may have affected health care access. METHODS: The study used the prescription drug monitoring program to analyze records of opioid analgesic prescriptions dispensed to opioid-naïve individuals in high (N = 26) and low (N = 94) broadband access counties during 3 periods: before a state of emergency (SOE) and executive order (EO) limiting nonemergent health care services (January 2019-February 2020), while the EO was active (March-April 2020), and after health care services began reopening (May-December 2020). Marginal generalized estimating equations-type negative binomial models were fit to compare prescription counts by broadband access over the 3 periods. FINDINGS: Rates of opioid dispensing to opioid-naïve individuals decreased significantly during the EO, but increased nearly to pre-SOE levels after health care services began reopening. Dispensing rates in low broadband counties were higher than those in high broadband counties during all time periods, although these differences were negligible after adjusting for potential confounders. During the EO, prescriptions were written for longer days' supply in both county types. CONCLUSIONS: The overall dramatic reduction in opioid prescribing rates should be considered when evaluating annual opioid prescribing trends. However, broadband subscription rate did not appear to influence opioid prescriptions dispensed in Kentucky during the EO.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0156421, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622004

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 created a crucial need for serology assays to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, which led to many serology assays entering the market. A trans-government collaboration was created in April 2020 to independently evaluate the performance of commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology assays and help inform U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory decisions. To assess assay performance, three evaluation panels with similar antibody titer distributions were assembled. Each panel consisted of 110 samples with positive (n = 30) serum samples with a wide range of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and negative (n = 80) plasma and/or serum samples that were collected before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Each sample was characterized for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies against the spike protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Samples were selected for the panel when there was agreement on seropositivity by laboratories at National Cancer Institute's Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (NCI-FNLCR) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The sensitivity and specificity of each assay were assessed to determine Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) suitability. As of January 8, 2021, results from 91 evaluations were made publicly available (https://open.fda.gov/apis/device/covid19serology/, and https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/serology-surveillance/serology-test-evaluation.html). Sensitivity ranged from 27% to 100% for IgG (n = 81), from 10% to 100% for IgM (n = 74), and from 73% to 100% for total or pan-immunoglobulins (n = 5). The combined specificity ranged from 58% to 100% (n = 91). Approximately one-third (n = 27) of the assays evaluated are now authorized by FDA for emergency use. This collaboration established a framework for assay performance evaluation that could be used for future outbreaks and could serve as a model for other technologies. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic created a crucial need for accurate serology assays to evaluate seroprevalence and antiviral immune responses. The initial flood of serology assays entering the market with inadequate performance emphasized the need for independent evaluation of commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays using performance evaluation panels to determine suitability for use under EUA. Through a government-wide collaborative network, 91 commercial SARS-CoV-2 serology assay evaluations were performed. Three evaluation panels with similar overall antibody titer distributions were assembled to evaluate performance. Nearly one-third of the assays evaluated met acceptable performance recommendations, and two assays had EUAs revoked and were removed from the U.S. market based on inadequate performance. Data for all serology assays evaluated are available at the FDA and CDC websites (https://open.fda.gov/apis/device/covid19serology/, and https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/serology-surveillance/serology-test-evaluation.html).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Test Approval , Humans , Laboratories , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
ACS Omega ; 6(45): 30726-30733, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527969

ABSTRACT

Medical shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic saw numerous efforts to 3D print personal protective equipment and treatment supplies. There is, however, little research on the potential biocompatibility of 3D-printed parts using typical polymeric resins as pertaining to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have specific relevance for respiratory circuit equipment. Here, we measured VOCs emitted from freshly printed stereolithography (SLA) replacement medical parts using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and infrared differential absorption spectroscopy, and particulates using a scanning mobility particle sizer. We observed emission factors for individual VOCs ranging from ∼0.001 to ∼10 ng cm-3 min-1. Emissions were heavily dependent on postprint curing and mildly dependent on the type of SLA resin. Curing reduced the emission of all observed chemicals, and no compounds exceeded the recommended dose of 360 µg/d. VOC emissions steadily decreased for all parts over time, with an average e-folding time scale (time to decrease to 1/e of the starting value) of 2.6 ± 0.9 h.

9.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:340-344, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408145

ABSTRACT

Objective: Non-hermetically sealed eye protection does not fully protect the eyes from airborne particles . Hermetically sealed eye protection fully protects the eyes from particles, but tends to fog up, rendering it unusable. This study aimed to build and test a filtered eye mask (FEM) to protect the eyes from airborne particles, while being usable without excessive fog build up.

10.
Journal of AAPOS ; 25(4):e4-e5, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1415481

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Teprotumumab, an IGF-IR inhibitory antibody, improves proptosis, diplopia, inflammatory signs/symptoms, and quality of life in TED. In the phase 3, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (OPTIC), 83% receiving teprotumumab were responders (≥2 mm proptosis reduction) after 24-weeks (vs 10% placebo). Extension of OPTIC (OPTIC-X) examined retreatment benefit (additional 24-weeks) in those with: disease exacerbation (flare) or initial nonresponse and longer-term TED course. Methods: Teprotumumab/placebo OPTIC nonresponders (n = 36 placebo, n = 5 teprotumumab) at Week-24 of OPTIC (<2 mm proptosis reduction) enrolled in OPTIC-X as did flared (n = 1 placebo, n = 9 teprotumumab) (≥2 mm proptosis or ≥2 CAS increase from week-24 with absolute CAS ≥4 and symptom development) during OPTIC follow-up. Primary efficacy endpoint was proptosis responder rate. Results: In OPTIC-X, 14 teprotumumab patients were retreated and 37 placebo patients (mean TED duration of 12.3 vs 6.2 mo in OPTIC teprotumumab) received first treatment with teprotumumab. 89% of previous placebo patients were responders (mean, −3.5 mm), comparable to OPTIC results. In those retreated, 2/5 OPTIC nonresponders (proptosis reduction averaged 1.5 mm from OPTIC-X baseline, 2.5 mm from OPTIC baseline) and in 5/8 patients who flared during follow-up (proptosis reduction averaged 1.9 mm from OPTIC-X baseline, 3.3 mm from OPTIC baseline). 1 additional flare patient (5 mm proptosis reduction) had a delayed visit due to COVID and was excluded from Week-24 analysis. No new safety signals were identified. Conclusion/relevance: Teprotumumab exhibits comparable efficacy in longer duration disease to that of shorter duration. Patients who have an initial insufficient response or flare after response may safely benefit from additional teprotumumab therapy.

11.
Remote Sensing ; 13(18):3699, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1410790

ABSTRACT

The ability to measure and monitor wildlife populations is important for species management and conservation. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly detect physiological traits from wildlife scat and other body materials could play an important role in the conservation of species. Previous research has demonstrated the potential for NIRS to detect diseases such as the novel COVID-19 from saliva, parasites from feces, and numerous other traits from animal skin, hair, and scat, such as cortisol metabolites, diet quality, sex, and reproductive status, that may be useful for population monitoring. Models developed from NIRS data use light reflected from a sample to relate the variation in the sample’s spectra to variation in a trait, which can then be used to predict that trait in unknown samples based on their spectra. The modelling process involves calibration, validation, and evaluation. Data sampling, pre-treatments, and the selection of training and testing datasets can impact model performance. We review the use of NIRS for measuring physiological traits in animals that may be useful for wildlife management and conservation and suggest future research to advance the application of NIRS for this purpose.

12.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 62(8), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1378849

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Teprotumumab was approved in January of 2020 for the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate additional efficacy parameters in patients receiving teprotumumab in the EAP (NCT04040894), which was initiated prior to the drug's approval by the US. Food and Drug Administration. Methods : This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who received teprotumumab at one study center. Eligible patients included those who were at least 18 years old with a clinical diagnosis of active, moderate-to-severe TED with a clinical activity score (CAS) equal to/greater than 4 with onset of TED within 12 months. Patients were provided 8 infusions (10 mg/kg first infusion, 20 mg/kg thereafter) every 3 weeks over course of 21 weeks. End points included changes in proptosis, intraocular pressure (IOP), extraocular motility deficit, CAS, photophobia score (visual light sensitivity questionnaire-8 [VLSQ-8]), basic secretion test, volumetric analysis of facial compartments (Canfield Vectra H2 camera). Paired t-tests were used to evaluate statistical significance from baseline. Results are presented for the more severe (study) eye. Results : 13 patients (4 males, 9 females) were included in the analysis. 10/13 patients were Caucasian. Average age was 46.5±15.9 years with a mean TED duration of 7.1±3.0 months. 10/13 (77%) received the complete set of 8 infusions (3 discontinued due to COVID-19, personal choice, and hyperglycemia). At week 21, the change from baseline (CFB) was -4.6±2.1 mm (n=11) for proptosis and -4.0±1.6 (n=11) for CAS (both p<0.001), -9.1±5.0 (n=11;p<0.001) for light sensitivity, and -3.6±3.4 mmHg (n=9;p<0.05) for IOP. 6 patients (n=12) had abnormal wetting test at eligibility visit, compared to 3 at week 21 (n=10). 6 patients had manifest strabismus, 5 of who had complete data. Out of the 5 patients, all but one patient had improvements in either extraocular motility or strabismus measurements. Facial volumetric analysis demonstrated reductions in both upper (CFB: -1.4±0.7 cc;n=4;p=0.03) and lower lid volume (CFB: -2.2±1.3 cc;n=4;p=0.04). Conclusions : These results support previously reported teprotumumab improvements in proptosis and CAS. Data from this cohort of patients suggest that teprotumumab may also be effective in improving light sensitivity, IOP, motility deficit, dry eyes, and periorbital edema.

13.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 62(8), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1378633

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Teprotumumab was recently approved in January of 2020 to treat thyroid eye disease (TED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety profile and Graves' ophthalmopathy quality of life questionnaire (GO-QOL) for a group of patients in which compassionate use of teprotumumab was deemed appropriate, prior to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Methods : Adults with active, moderate-to-severe TED were scheduled to receive 8 infusions (10 mg/kg first infusion, 20 mg/kg thereafter) of teprotumumab over 21 weeks. Adverse events (AEs), lab assessments, vitals and GO-QOL (max QOL=100) were assessed. Results : 22 patients (52.4±16.2 years, 64% female, 91% non-smokers, 7.2±3.0 months TED duration) from 8 sites were treated. 19/22 (86%) received 8 infusions (3 discontinued treatment due to COVID-19, personal choice, and hyperglycemia). Baseline Total GO-QOL was 47.8±21.4 (appearance [AP]: 42.9±26.7, visual function [VF]: 52.9±24.6). At Week 21, Total GO-QOL improved from baseline by 24.9±21.0 points (AP improved by 23.8±26.2, VF improved by 25.7±25.8), all large changes. All patients reported an AE. One patient suffered from appendicitis, which was deemed unrelated. Other AEs (>2 patients) included muscle spasms (n=11), fatigue (n=10), hypoacusis (n=5), headache (n=5), nausea (n=5), extremity pain (n=4), alopecia (n=4), hypertension (n=4), dry skin (n=3), diarrhea (n=3), tinnitus (n=3), myalgia (n=3), increased lacrimation (n=3), and hypogeusia (n=3). No new safety concerns were identified. Conclusions : Teprotumumab resulted in large QOL improvements as demonstrated previously in controlled clinical trials. Safety findings were consistent with the previously established teprotumumab profile.

14.
2020 Fifteenth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies ; 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1372249

ABSTRACT

Air circulation inside the buses' cabin seems to negatively affect the spread of contagious diseases, such as the COVID-19 virus and raises valid health concerns over using public transportations. Employing all-fresh air and avoiding to recirculate it could help with lowering the exposure time and the virus density in buses;however, it makes the heating more challenging, especially in Electric buses. Here a Baseline and a proposed Recovery Heat Pump (BHP and RHP, respectively) systems in a generic single decker bus were modeled to investigate their dynamic performance and the cabin's conditions using 100% fresh air. Simulink and Simscape toolbox from MATLAB (R2020a) were used to build up the real-time model by integrating an HP system with a cabin sub-model. The cabin is modeled using a moisture air network and is coupled with the HP to exchange heat with the refrigerant through the condenser. For both cases, 100% fresh air flows through the condenser into the cabin. In BHP the evaporator is exposed to 100% cold fresh air, while in RHP the warm air from the cabin passes through the evaporator before being vented outside. Both cases were studied for different ventilation modes in low and medium occupancy levels. Results indicate that RHP shows superior performance compared with BHP. Under the studied operational conditions, RHP reduced the power requirement, warm-up time, and operation time by 36%-6% (at most- at least), 57%-7%, and 39%-13%, respectively.

15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 98: 103384, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Following emergency declarations related to COVID-19 in the United States, many states issued stay-at-home orders and designated essential business categories. Most states allowed medical and/or non-medical adult-use cannabis retailers to remain open. This study assesses changes in cannabis sales across Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Pre-tax sales data from cannabis marketplaces in four states were analyzed to identify trends from January 2018-December 2020. Mean monthly sales and relative percent change in mean monthly sales were compared by state from April-December (coinciding with the pandemic) in 2018, 2019, and 2020. Differences were assessed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney-U test. RESULTS: Mean monthly cannabis sales in all four states were higher during the pandemic period in 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. Sales reached a three-year peak in Washington in May 2020 and in Alaska, Colorado, and Oregon in July 2020. From April-December, the percent change in mean monthly sales from 2019 to 2020 was significantly higher than 2018-2019 in all four states, though Alaska saw similar increases between 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. CONCLUSION: To date, cannabis sales in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington have increased more during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the previous two years. In light of these increases, data monitoring by states and CDC is warranted to understand how patterns of use are changing, which populations are demonstrating changes in use, and how such changes may affect substance use and related public health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adult , Alaska/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Washington/epidemiology
16.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(6): e240-e241, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278552

Subject(s)
Neurology , Child , Family , Humans
19.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(3): 1796, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159104

ABSTRACT

While studies of urban acoustics are typically restricted to the audio range, anthropogenic activity also generates infrasound (<20 Hz, roughly at the lower end of the range of human hearing). Shutdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic unintentionally created ideal conditions for the study of urban infrasound and low frequency audio (20-500 Hz), as closures reduced human-generated ambient noise, while natural signals remained relatively unaffected. An array of infrasound sensors deployed in Las Vegas, NV, provides data for a case study in monitoring human activity during the pandemic through urban acoustics. The array records a sharp decline in acoustic power following the temporary shutdown of businesses deemed nonessential by the state of Nevada. This decline varies spatially across the array, with stations close to McCarran International Airport generally recording the greatest declines in acoustic power. Further, declines in acoustic power fluctuate with the time of day. As only signals associated with anthropogenic activity are expected to decline, this gives a rough indication of periodicities in urban acoustics throughout Las Vegas. The results of this study reflect the city's response to the pandemic and suggest spatiotemporal trends in acoustics outside of shutdowns.


Subject(s)
Acoustics/instrumentation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring , Human Activities , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nevada , Noise , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Naval Research Logistics (NRL) ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1135123

ABSTRACT

Abstract Testing provides essential information for managing infectious disease outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. When testing resources are scarce, an important managerial decision is who to test. This decision is compounded by the fact that potential testing subjects are heterogeneous in multiple dimensions that are important to consider, including their likelihood of being disease-positive, and how much potential harm would be averted through testing and the subsequent interventions. To increase testing coverage, pooled testing can be utilized, but this comes at a cost of increased false-negatives when the test is imperfect. Then, the decision problem is to partition the heterogeneous testing population into three mutually exclusive sets: those to be individually tested, those to be pool tested, and those not to be tested. Additionally, the subjects to be pool tested must be further partitioned into testing pools, potentially containing different numbers of subjects. The objectives include the minimization of harm (through detection and mitigation) or maximization of testing coverage. We develop data-driven optimization models and algorithms to design pooled testing strategies, and show, via a COVID-19 contact tracing case study, that the proposed testing strategies can substantially outperform the current practice used for COVID-19 contact tracing (individually testing those contacts with symptoms). Our results demonstrate the substantial benefits of optimizing the testing design, while considering the multiple dimensions of population heterogeneity and the limited testing capacity.

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