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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320307

ABSTRACT

Background: For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality rates vary widely depending on many factors, among which hospital resources and clinical setting seem important. We sought to determine the outcome of critically ill patients admitted in the usual multidisciplinary ICUs of a big referral for COVID-19 tertiary-care hospital with adequate resources. Methods: : We performed a prospective observational study of all adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to four COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece, from March 11 to April 27, 2020. Results: : Among 50 critically ill patients, ICU and hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 32% (16/50), whereas 66% (33/50) of patients were discharged alive from the ICU and 2% (1/50) were still treated in the ICU until June 16, 2020. ICU and hospital mortality for those who received invasive mechanical ventilation was 39% (16/41). Patients who eventually died had already increased risk of death on ICU admission, as suggested by the high values of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, the presence of current malignancy and occurrence of cardiac arrest in 44% (7/16) of patients, and the general need for circulatory support by noradrenaline. Median PaO 2 /FiO 2 on ICU admission for the entire cohort was 121 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg] and most patients had moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according to the Berlin Definition. The primary cause of death of all patients was multi-organ failure, most commonly due to sepsis, whereas none died from refractory hypoxemia, neurologic dysfunction or withdrawal of life support. Hospital stay was long in patients who survived [median 24 days (IQR, 15-35 days)] and was frequently complicated by bacteremias [36% (12/33)]. Conclusion: Severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have equal or even lower mortality rates compared to ARDS due to other causes, when they are admitted in general ICUs with experienced and adequate staff without limitations in hospital resources, where established ARDS therapies are used.

2.
J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures) ; 7(1): 14-20, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals who are directly involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and general care of patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk of developing adverse psychological reactions. A cross-sectional study of healthcare professionals aimed to determine the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare professionals in two of the largest referral hospitals in Athens, Greece. METHODS: The study was conducted in the two largest SARS-CoV-2 referral hospitals in Athens, Greece. An assessment and the interrelationship of post-traumatic stress disorder, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised [IES-R]) and burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory [MBI]) was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 162 subjects were enrolled in the study. Fifty-six (35%) had an IES-R score > 33, suggesting post-traumatic stress disorder. Forty-nine (30%) had an MBI score > 27. Seventy-five (46%) had a personal accomplishment score of < 33 and 46 (28%) had a depersonalization score >10. Stepwise backward logistic regression revealed that the only independent variable that was retained regarding the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the emotional exhaustion score of the MBI (at a cut-off of 24 in this scale, the 95% CI of the odds ratio for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder was 1.077-1.173). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of first-line Greek healthcare professionals against SARS-CoV-2, most of them were proven to be quite resilient to this challenge. One-third of them had post-traumatic stress disorder, which depended on their degree of emotional exhaustion. Healthcare professionals, as represented by this study, performed their duties without feeling helpless and developing adverse psychological reactions.

3.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945844

ABSTRACT

For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, extremely high mortality rates (even 97%) have been reported. We hypothesized that overburdened hospital resources by the extent of the pandemic rather than the disease per se might play an important role on unfavorable prognosis. We sought to determine the outcome of such patients admitted to the general ICUs of a hospital with sufficient resources. We performed a prospective observational study of adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece. Among 50 patients, ICU and hospital mortality was 32% (16/50). Median PaO2/FiO2 was 121 mmHg (interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg) and most patients had moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hospital resources may be an important aspect of mortality rates, since severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have understandable mortality, provided that they are admitted to general ICUs without limitations on hospital resources.

4.
Metabolites ; 10(10)2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-906480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate's area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p < 0.0001); the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

5.
Metabolites ; 10(10):386, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-799989

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients;however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate"s area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p <0.0001);the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

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