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1.
J Virol ; : e0110022, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992941

ABSTRACT

Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute highly contagious economically relevant respiratory disease of poultry. Vaccination is used to control IBV infections, with live-attenuated vaccines generated via serial passage of a virulent field isolate through embryonated hens' eggs. A fine balance must be achieved between attenuation and the retention of immunogenicity. The exact molecular mechanism of attenuation is unknown, and vaccines produced in this manner present a risk of reversion to virulence as few consensus level changes are acquired. Our previous research resulted in the generation of a recombinant IBV (rIBV) known as M41-R, based on a pathogenic strain M41-CK. M41-R was attenuated in vivo by two amino acid changes, Nsp10-Pro85Leu and Nsp14-Val393Leu; however, the mechanism of attenuation was not determined. Pro85 and Val393 were found to be conserved among not only IBV strains but members of the wider coronavirus family. This study demonstrates that the same changes are associated with a temperature-sensitive (ts) replication phenotype at 41°C in vitro, suggesting that the two phenotypes may be linked. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with M41-R induced 100% protection against clinical disease, tracheal ciliary damage, and challenge virus replication following homologous challenge with virulent M41-CK. Temperature sensitivity has been used to rationally attenuate other viral pathogens, including influenza, and the identification of amino acid changes that impart both a ts and an attenuated phenotype may therefore offer an avenue for future coronavirus vaccine development. IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis virus is a pathogen of economic and welfare concern for the global poultry industry. Live-attenuated vaccines against are generated by serial passage of a virulent isolate in embryonated eggs until attenuation is achieved. The exact mechanisms of attenuation are unknown, and vaccines produced have a risk of reversion to virulence. Reverse genetics provides a method to generate vaccines that are rationally attenuated and are more stable with respect to back selection due to their clonal origin. Genetic populations resulting from molecular clones are more homogeneous and lack the presence of parental pathogenic viruses, which generation by multiple passage does not. In this study, we identified two amino acids that impart a temperature-sensitive replication phenotype. Immunogenicity is retained and vaccination results in 100% protection against homologous challenge. Temperature sensitivity, used for the development of vaccines against other viruses, presents a method for the development of coronavirus vaccines.

2.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0205921, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788916

ABSTRACT

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious global pathogen prevalent in all types of poultry flocks. IBV is responsible for economic losses and welfare issues in domestic poultry, resulting in a significant risk to food security. IBV vaccines are currently generated by serial passage of virulent IBV field isolates through embryonated hens' eggs. The different patterns of genomic variation accumulated during this process means that the exact mechanism of attenuation is unknown and presents a risk of reversion to virulence. Additionally, the passaging process adapts the virus to replicate in chicken embryos, increasing embryo lethality. Vaccines produced in this manner are therefore unsuitable for in ovo application. We have developed a reverse genetics system, based on the pathogenic IBV strain M41, to identify genes which can be targeted for rational attenuation. During the development of this reverse genetics system, we identified four amino acids, located in nonstructural proteins (nsps) 10, 14, 15, and 16, which resulted in attenuation both in vivo and in ovo. Further investigation highlighted a role of amino acid changes, Pro85Leu in nsp 10 and Val393Leu in nsp 14, in the attenuated in vivo phenotype observed. This study provides evidence that mutations in nsps offer a promising mechanism for the development of rationally attenuated live vaccines against IBV, which have the potential for in ovo application. IMPORTANCE The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute, highly contagious, economically important disease of poultry. Vaccination is achieved using a mixture of live attenuated vaccines for young chicks and inactivated vaccines as boosters for laying hens. Live attenuated vaccines are generated through serial passage in embryonated hens' eggs, an empirical process which achieves attenuation but retains immunogenicity. However, these vaccines have a risk of reversion to virulence, and they are lethal to the embryo. In this study, we identified amino acids in the replicase gene which attenuated IBV strain M41, both in vivo and in ovo. Stability assays indicate that the attenuating amino acids are stable and unlikely to revert. The data in this study provide evidence that specific modifications in the replicase gene offer a promising direction for IBV live attenuated vaccine development, with the potential for in ovo application.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids/chemistry , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782008

ABSTRACT

In the light of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we have developed a porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) model for in depth mechanistic evaluation of the pathogenesis, virology and immune responses of this important family of viruses. Pigs are a large animal with similar physiology and immunology to humans and are a natural host for PRCV. Four PRCV strains were investigated and shown to induce different degrees of lung pathology. Importantly, although all four strains replicated equally well in porcine cell lines in vitro and in the upper respiratory tract in vivo, PRCV strains causing more severe lung pathology were also able to replicate in ex vivo tracheal organ cultures as well as in vivo in the trachea and lung. The time course of infection of PRCV 135, which caused the most severe pulmonary pathology, was investigated. Virus was shed from the upper respiratory tract until day 10 post infection, with infection of the respiratory mucosa, as well as olfactory and sustentacular cells, providing an excellent model to study upper respiratory tract disease in addition to the commonly known lower respiratory tract disease from PRCV. Infected animals made antibody and T cell responses that cross reacted with the four PRCV strains and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus. The antibody response was reproduced in vitro in organ cultures. Comparison of mechanisms of infection and immune control in pigs infected with PRCVs of differing pathogenicity with human data from SARS-CoV-2 infection and from our in vitro organ cultures, will enable key events in coronavirus infection and disease pathogenesis to be identified.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009644, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278205

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular signalling pathway composed of three branches, triggered by unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to high ER load. We have used RNA sequencing and ribosome profiling to investigate holistically the transcriptional and translational response to cellular infection by murine hepatitis virus (MHV), often used as a model for the Betacoronavirus genus to which the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 also belongs. We found the UPR to be amongst the most significantly up-regulated pathways in response to MHV infection. To confirm and extend these observations, we show experimentally the induction of all three branches of the UPR in both MHV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Over-expression of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 or S proteins alone is itself sufficient to induce the UPR. Remarkably, pharmacological inhibition of the UPR greatly reduced the replication of both MHV and SARS-CoV-2, revealing the importance of this pathway for successful coronavirus replication. This was particularly striking when both IRE1α and ATF6 branches of the UPR were inhibited, reducing SARS-CoV-2 virion release (~1,000-fold). Together, these data highlight the UPR as a promising antiviral target to combat coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Activating Transcription Factor 6/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Delivery Systems , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , RNA-Seq , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 135-143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761350

ABSTRACT

Several techniques are currently available to quickly and accurately quantify the number of virus particles in a sample, taking advantage of advanced technologies improving old techniques or generating new ones, generally relying on partial detection methods or structural analysis. Therefore, characterization of virus infectivity in a sample is often essential, and classical virological methods are extremely powerful in providing accurate results even in an old-fashioned way. In this chapter, we describe in detail the techniques routinely used to estimate the number of viable infectious coronavirus particles in a given sample. All these techniques are serial dilution assays, also known as titrations or end-point dilution assays (EPDA).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Viral Plaque Assay/methods , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Trachea/cytology
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