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Dent Mater ; 38(6): e155-e159, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873002


OBJECTIVE: Fast and reliable detection of infection is a key to control the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Lateral flow antigen tests (LFATs) are inexpensive, easy to use, but have to be verified, as they are rather unspecific and can produce both, false positive and false negative results. Our objective was to combine the speed of LFAT for SARS-CoV-2 with the reliability of qPCR tests. METHODS: A serial dilution of a patient sample positive for SARS-CoV-2 was prepared and added to LFAT wells from two manufacturers. After evaluation, the devices were opened, the strips removed and extracted in a solution. Amplification was performed using point of care PCR systems (cobas® Liat®, ID NOW™) or on a LightCycler after extraction by MagNAPure 96. RESULTS: The nucleic acid amplification systems yielded higher sensitivity to LFAT. Thus, all samples determined positive by LFAT from the serial dilution were also positive in the subsequent amplification reactions. Sensitivity using extracted eluates was 10-100 times higher. SIGNIFICANCE: The usage of LFAT is highly recommended for single samples in emergency dental or emergency clinical settings, for smaller cohorts, or even for larger population screening, as it is inexpensive and fast. Positive results can be conveniently verified directly from the test devices using either point of care test equipment or more complex laboratory equipment thus making a major impact on efficient management of infections and isolations.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 39, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388782


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a continued challenge for all parties involved especially for the dentist as routine operation must be resumed. Rapid Antigen Tests (RATs) are actually recommended to identify and minimize infectious risks. However, there is still no guideline on the implementation of RATs in a dental or medical setting. METHODS: Based on data and an extensive literature research regarding rapid antigen testing and reflecting the recommendations given by the various professional societies a task force was formed to determine a specific testing and treatment strategy. RESULTS: A comprehensive test and treatment strategy and risk analysis was developed with practical suggestions for a wide range of typical activities in dental and medical offices. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants via aerosols and droplets as well as the difficulties to maintain the minimum distance form special challenges to the dental routine. RATs might in addition to optimal and necessary hygienic standards in combination with the use of adequate personal protection equipment be an important instrument in managing the challenges. CONCLUSIONS: The present work gives recommendations for dental routine operation (dental practices, outpatient clinics) to provide the necessary dental care for the population while protecting the doctor, practice team and patient at the same time.

COVID-19 , Dentistry , Infection Control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics
Dent Mater ; 36(4): 479-490, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824599


OBJECTIVE: Ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (bisEMA) is a base monomer in several dental resin composites. It was the main aim of the present study to determine if bisEMA can reach the dental pulp by generally passive diffusion through the coronal dentinal tubules stimulated via eluent liquids surrounding the root structures only. METHODS: In 20 human third molar teeth, standard Class-I occlusal cavities were prepared and provided either with an adhesive system alone or additionally with a composite restoration, according to the instructions of the manufacturer. The teeth were placed in an elution chamber such that the elution media only came into contact with the tooth root/tooth base where they were incubated at 37 °C for up to 7 d. Samples were taken after 1, 2, 4 and 7 d. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify bisEMA and other monomers in ethanol/water (3:1) and aqueous eluates. RESULTS: bisEMA was only found in ethanol/water eluates, where the teeth had received a composite restoration. Traces of bisEMA with up to three ethylene oxide units could be detected in these eluates. Depending on the dentin thickness, different elution kinetics of bisEMA were determined. Regardless of the treatment of teeth, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEEGDMA) were found in ethanolic/aqueous eluates in equal amounts. Most TEGDMA and TEEGDMA diffused through the dentin within the first 24 h. SIGNIFICANCE: Depending on the dentin layer thickness, bisEMA was released for varied time periods, resulting in varied concentrations and exposure times for the different cells of the dental pulp. The concentrations of TEGDMA and TEEGDMA were greatest for cells of the dental pulp within the first 24 h.

Composite Resins , Methacrylates , Humans , Kinetics , Polyethylene Glycols , Polymethacrylic Acids