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1.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 187, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938327

ABSTRACT

Some COVID-19 patients experience dyspnea without objective impairment of pulmonary or cardiac function. This study determined diaphragm function and its central voluntary activation as a potential correlate with exertional dyspnea after COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in ten patients and matched controls. One year post discharge, both pulmonary function tests and echocardiography were normal. However, six patients with persisting dyspnea on exertion showed impaired volitional diaphragm function and control based on ultrasound, magnetic stimulation and balloon catheter-based recordings. Diaphragm dysfunction with impaired voluntary activation can be present 1 year after severe COVID-19 ARDS and may relate to exertional dyspnea.This prospective case-control study was registered under the trial registration number NCT04854863 April, 22 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Patient Discharge , Physical Exertion , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Allergy ; 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, BioNTech/Pfizer) and the vaccine candidate CVnCoV (Curevac) each encode a stabilized spike protein of SARS-CoV2 as antigen but differ with respect to the nature of the mRNA (modified versus unmodified nucleotides) and the mRNA amount (30 µg versus 12 µg RNA). This study characterizes antisera elicited by these two vaccines in comparison to convalescent sera. METHODS: Sera from BNT162b2 vaccinated healthcare workers, and sera from participants of a phase I trial vaccinated with 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 µg CVnCoV and convalescent sera from hospitalized patients were analyzed by ELISA, neutralization tests, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and peptide arrays. RESULTS: BNT162b2-elicited sera and convalescent sera have a higher titer of spike-RBD-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies as compared to the CVnCoV-elicited sera. For all analyzed sera a reduction in binding and neutralizing antibodies was found for the lineage B.1.351 variant of concern. SPR analyses revealed that the CVnCoV-elicited sera have a lower fraction of slow-dissociating antibodies. Accordingly, the CVnCoV sera almost fail to compete with the spike-ACE2 interaction. The significance of common VOC mutations K417N, E484K, or N501Y focused on linear epitopes was analyzed using a peptide array approach. The peptide arrays showed a strong difference between convalescent sera and vaccine-elicited sera. Specifically, the linear epitope at position N501 was affected by the mutation and elucidates the escape of viral variants to antibodies against this linear epitope. CONCLUSION: These data reveal differences in titer, neutralizing capacity, and affinity of the antibodies between BNT162b2- and CVnCoV-elicited sera, which could contribute to the apparent differences in vaccine efficacy.

4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9862, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890268

ABSTRACT

There is high mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Important factors for COVID-19 mortality are diabetes status and elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG). However, the effect of glycaemic variability on survival has not been explored in patients with COVID-19 and ARDS. This single-centre cohort study compared several metrics of glycaemic variability for goodness-of-fit in patients requiring mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 ARDS in the ICU at University Hospital Aachen, Germany. 106 patients had moderate to severe ARDS (P/F ratio median [IQR]: 112 [87-148] mmHg). Continuous HRs showed a proportional increase in mortality risk with daily glycaemic variability (DGV). Multivariable unadjusted and adjusted Cox-models showed a statistically significant difference in mortality for DGV (HR: 1.02, (P) < 0.001, LR(P) < 0.001; HR: 1.016, (P) = 0.001, LR(P) < 0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier estimators yielded a shorter median survival (25 vs. 87 days) and a higher likelihood of death (75% vs. 31%) in patients with DGV ≥ 25.5 mg/dl (P < 0.0001). High glycaemic variability during ICU admission is associated with significant increase in all-cause mortality for patients admitted with COVID-19 ARDS to the ICU. This effect persisted even after adjustment for clinically predetermined confounders, including diabetes, median procalcitonin and FPG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 490-494, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865424

ABSTRACT

The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) monitors the actual number of COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care from aggregated data reported by hospitals in Germany. So far, there is no infrastructure to make use of individual patient-level data from intensive care units for public health surveillance. Adopting concepts and components of the already established AKTIN Emergency Department Data registry, we implemented the prototype of a federated and distributed research infrastructure giving the RKI access to patient-level intensive care data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Management , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Public Health Surveillance
6.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 10(4): 409-424, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: International registries have reported high mortality rates in patients with liver disease and COVID-19. However, the extent to which comorbidities contribute to excess COVID-19 mortality in cirrhosis is controversial. METHODS: We used the multinational Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (LEOSS) to identify patients with cirrhosis documented between March 2020 and March 2021, when the wild-type and alpha variant were predominant. We compared symptoms, disease progression and mortality after propensity score matching (PSM) for age, sex, obesity, smoking status, and concomitant diseases. Mortality was also compared with that of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) without SARS-CoV-2 infection, a common bacterial infection and well-described precipitator of acute-on-chronic liver failure. RESULTS: Among 7096 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection eligible for analysis, 70 (0.99%) had cirrhosis, and all were hospitalized. Risk factors for severe COVID-19, such as diabetes, renal disease, and cardiovascular disease were more frequent in patients with cirrhosis. Case fatality rate in patients with cirrhosis was 31.4% with the highest odds of death in patients older than 65 years (43.6% mortality; odds ratio [OR] 4.02; p = 0.018), Child-Pugh class C (57.1%; OR 4.00; p = 0.026), and failure of two or more organs (81.8%; OR 19.93; p = 0.001). After PSM for demographics and comorbidity, the COVID-19 case fatality of patients with cirrhosis did not significantly differ from that of matched patients without cirrhosis (28.8% vs. 26.1%; p = 0.644) and was similar to the 28-day mortality in a comparison group of patients with cirrhosis and SBP (33.3% vs. 31.5%; p = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: In immunologically naïve patients with cirrhosis, mortality from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the alpha variant is high and is largely determined by cirrhosis-associated comorbidities and extrahepatic organ failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Registries
7.
Adv Ther ; 39(6): 3011-3018, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Enhancement of mucociliary clearance (MCC) might be a potential target in treating COVID-19. The phytomedicine ELOM-080 is an MCC enhancer that is used to treat inflammatory respiratory diseases. PATIENTS/METHODS: This randomised, double-blind exploratory study (EudraCT number 2020-003779-17) evaluated 14 days' add-on therapy with ELOM-080 versus placebo in patients with COVID-19 hospitalised with acute respiratory insufficiency. RESULTS: The trial was terminated early after enrolment of 47 patients as a result of poor recruitment. Twelve patients discontinued prematurely, leaving 35 in the per-protocol set (PPS). Treatment with ELOM-080 had no significant effect on overall clinical status versus placebo (p = 0.49). However, compared with the placebo group, patients treated with ELOM-080 had less dyspnoea in the second week of hospitalisation (p = 0.0035), required less supplemental oxygen (p = 0.0229), and were more often without dyspnoea when climbing stairs at home (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These exploratory data suggest the potential for ELOM-080 to improve respiratory status during and after hospitalisation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Double-Blind Method , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(3): 178-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747156

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - has resulted in a global pandemic. The associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a high number of death worldwide. Observational studies and case reports have provided insights that older age and the presence of chronic diseases is frequently associated with a higher COVID-19 severity. These individuals also seem to have a higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19. In this review we provide insights into the impact chronic diseases associated with the cardiovascular system, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease might have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Additionally we review recommendations and guidance's of international scientific associations and discuss which key learnings might be of importance for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Heart , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707474

ABSTRACT

Mobile (m) Health technology is well-suited for Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) in a patient's habitual environment. In recent years there have been fast-paced developments in mHealth-enabled pediatric RPM, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, necessitating evidence synthesis. To this end, we conducted a scoping review of clinical trials that had utilized mHealth-enabled RPM of pediatric asthma. MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were searched from September 1, 2016 through August 31, 2021. Our scoping review identified 25 publications that utilized synchronous and asynchronous mHealth-enabled RPM in pediatric asthma, either involving mobile applications or via individual devices. The last three years has seen the development of evidence-based, multidisciplinary, and participatory mHealth interventions. The quality of the studies has been improving, such that 40% of included study reports were randomized controlled trials. In conclusion, there exists high-quality evidence on mHealth-enabled RPM in pediatric asthma, warranting future systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses of the benefits of such RPM.

10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705787

ABSTRACT

In light of an increasing number of vaccinated and convalescent individuals, there is a major need for the development of robust methods for the quantification of neutralizing antibodies; although, a defined correlate of protection is still missing. Sera from hospitalized COVID-19 patients suffering or not suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were comparatively analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and pseudotype-based neutralization assays to quantify their neutralizing capacity. The two neutralization assays showed comparable data. In case of the non-ARDS sera, there was a distinct correlation between the data from the neutralization assays on the one hand, and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), as well as biophysical analyses, on the other hand. As such, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assays for quantification of binding antibodies or analysis of the stability of the antigen-antibody interaction and inhibition of syncytium formation, determined by cell fusion assays, were performed. In the case of ARDS sera, which are characterized by a significantly higher fraction of RBD-binding IgA antibodies, there is a clear correlation between the neutralization assays and the ELISA data. In contrast to this, a less clear correlation between the biophysical analyses on the one hand and ELISAs and neutralization assays on the other hand was observed, which might be explained by the heterogeneity of the antibodies. To conclude, for less complex immune sera-as in cases of non-ARDS sera-combinations of titer quantification by ELISA with inhibition of syncytium formation, SPR-based analysis of antibody binding, determination of the stability of the antigen-antibody complex, and competition of the RBD-ACE2 binding represent alternatives to the classic PRNT for analysis of the neutralizing potential of SARS-CoV-2-specific sera, without the requirement for a BSL3 facility.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Convalescence , Immune Sera/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests
11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328707

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of post-COVID-19 symptoms remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine cardiopulmonary limitations six months after surviving COVID-19 using pulmonary function tests (PFTs), echocardiographic studies to the point of analyses of global-longitudinal-strain (GLS), which describes the cycling myocardium deformation and provides better data on left ventricular (LV) dysfunction than LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and validated questionnaires. Overall, 60 consecutive hospitalized patients were included (61±2 years, 32% treated in the ICU). At follow-up (194±3 days after discharge), fatigue was the most prevalent symptom (28%). Patients with fatigue were more symptomatic overall and characterized by worse quality of life (QoL) scores compared to patients without fatigue (all p<0.05), mainly due to limited mobility and high symptom burden. While PFT variables and LVEF were normal in the vast majority (LVEF=52% (45%-52%)) of patients, GLS was significantly reduced (-15%(-18%_-14%)). However, GLS values were not different between patients with and without fatigue. In conclusion, fatigue was the most prevalent post-COVID-19 symptom in our cohort, which was associated with worse QoL mainly due to limited mobility and the high burden of concomitant symptoms. Patients showed a subtle myocardial dysfunction six months after surviving COVID-19, but this did not relate to the presence of fatigue.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311563

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying preventive strategies in Covid-19 patients will help to improve resource-allocation and reduce mortality. In this Journal, we recently demonstrated in a post-mortem cohort that SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism was associated with kidney injury, disease severity and mortality. We also proposed an algorithm to predict the risk of adverse outcomes in Covid-19 patients harnessing urinalysis and protein/coagulation parameters on admission for signs of kidney injury. Here, we aimed to validate this hypothesis in a multicenter cohort.Methods: Patients hospitalized for Covid-19 at four tertiary centers were screened for an available urinalysis, serum albumin (SA) and antithrombin-III activity (AT-III) obtained prospectively within 48h upon admission. The respective presumed risk for an unfavorable course was categorized as “low”, “intermediate” or “high”, depending on a normal urinalysis, an abnormal urinalysis with SA ≥2 g/dl and AT-III ≥70%, or an abnormal urinalysis with at least one SA or AT-III abnormality. Time to ICU or death within ten days served as primary, in-hospital mortality and required organ support served as secondary endpoints.Findings: Among a total of N=223 screened patients, N=145 were eligible for enrollment, falling into the low (N=43), intermediate (N=84), and high risk (N=18) categories. The risk for ICU transfer or death was 100% in the high risk group and significantly elevated in the composite of high and intermediate risk as compared to the low risk group (63·7% vs. 27·9%;HR 2·6;95%-CI 1·4 to 4·9;P=0·0020). Having an abnormal urinalysis was associated with mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or renal replacement therapy (RRT).Interpretation: Our data confirm that Covid-19-associated urine abnormalities on admission predict disease aggravation. This supports the conceptual relevance of Covid-19-associated kidney injury. By engaging a simple urine dipstick our algorithm allows for early preventive measures and appropriate patient stratification. Trial Registration: (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04347824)Funding Statement: This work was supported by the DFG (GR 1852/6-1 to OG;CRC1192 to JET, EH and TBH), (HU 1016/8-2, HU 1016/11-1, HU 1016/ 12-1 to TBH) and (GR 1852/6-1 to OG);by the BMBF (STOP-FSGS-01GM1518C and NephrESA-031L0191E to TBH), by the Else-Kröner Fresenius Foundation (Else Kröner-Promotionskolleg –iPRIME to TBH), and by the H2020-IMI2 consortium BEAt-DKD (115974 to TBH). In addition, the UMG Göttingen applied for Government funding (Covid-19 program) by The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the application currently is under consideration.Declaration of Interests: All authors report no conflict of interest in relation to this observational cohort-study. Ethics Approval Statement: According to the German Medicines Act, the study was approved by the leading institutional review board (IRB) of the UMG Göttingen (41/4/20), and all others.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311562

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Identifying preventive strategies in Covid-19 patients helps to improve ICU-resource-allocation and reduce mortality. We recently demonstrated in a post-mortem cohort that SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism was associated with kidney injury, disease severity and mortality. We also proposed an algorithm to predict the need for ICU-resources and the risk of adverse outcomes in Covid-19 patients harnessing urinalysis and protein/coagulation parameters on admission for signs of kidney injury. Here, we aimed to validate this hypothesis in a multicenter cohort. Methods: : Patients hospitalized for Covid-19 at four tertiary centers were screened for an available urinalysis, serum albumin (SA) and antithrombin-III activity (AT-III) obtained prospectively within 48h upon admission. The respective presumed risk for an unfavorable course was categorized as “low”, “intermediate” or “high”, depending on a normal urinalysis, an abnormal urinalysis with SA ≥2 g/dl and AT-III ≥70%, or an abnormal urinalysis with at least one SA or AT-III abnormality. Time to ICU or death within ten days served as primary, in-hospital mortality and required organ support served as secondary endpoints. Results: : Among a total of N=223 screened patients, N=145 were eligible for enrollment, falling into the low (N=43), intermediate (N=84), and high risk (N=18) categories. The risk for ICU transfer or death was 100% in the high risk group and significantly elevated in the composite of high and intermediate risk as compared to the low risk group (63.7% vs. 27.9%;HR 2.6;95%-CI 1.4 to 4.9;P=0.0020). Having an abnormal urinalysis was associated with mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or renal replacement therapy (RRT). Conclusion: Our data confirm that Covid-19-associated urine abnormalities on admission predict disease aggravation and need for ICU. By engaging a simple urine dipstick on hospital admission our algorithm allows for early preventive measures and appropriate patient stratification. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04347824)

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309010

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Patients suffering from CVOID-19 mostly experience a benign course of the disease. Approximately 14 % of SARS-CoV2 infected patients are admitted to a hospital. Cohorts exhibiting severe lung failure in the form of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been well characterized. Patients without ARDS but in need of supplementary oxygen have received much less attention. This study describes the diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 needing oxygen support during their stay on regular ward. Methods: : All 133 patients admitted to the RWTH Aachen university hospital with the diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in an observational registry. Clinical data sets were extracted from the hospital information system. This analysis includes all 57 patients requiring supplemental oxygen not admitted to the ICU. Results: : 57 patients needing supplemental oxygen and being treated outside the ICU were analyzed. Patients exhibited the typical set of symptoms for COVID-19. Of note, hypoxic patients mostly did not suffer from clinically relevant dyspnea despite oxygen saturations below 92 %. Patients had fever for 7 [2-11] days and needed supplemental oxygen for 8 [5-13] days resulting in an overall hospitalization time of 12 [7-20] days. In addition, patients had persisting systemic inflammation with CRP levels remaining elevated until discharge or death. Conclusion: This description of COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen therapy should be taken into account when planning treatment capacity. Patients on oxygen need long-term inpatient care.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321972

ABSTRACT

Background: Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience prolonged fatigue and dyspnoea without objective impairment of pulmonary or cardiac function. This study determined diaphragm function and its central voluntary activation as a possible pathophysiological correlate after severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods:Ten patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (6 female, age 56±14 years, 63±45 days of IMV) and ten matched healthy controls underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs), 6-minute walk test, echocardiography, diaphragm ultrasound, and invasive recording of twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (twPdi) following magnetic diaphragm stimulation. Twitch interpolation was used to determine the diaphragm voluntary activation index (DVAI);reflecting central diaphragm activation.Findings: One year post discharge, neither PFTs nor echocardiography were indicative of significant abnormalities in severe COVID-19 survivors. However, six patients reported persisting dyspnoea on exertion (severe in two, moderate in four). On ultrasound, the diaphragm thickening ratio was lower in patients versus controls (1.87±0.37 vs. 2.76±0.72;p<0.01), and diaphragm excursion velocity during a maximum sniff manoeuvre was associated with dyspnoea. TwPdi following cervical magnetic stimulation did not differ between patients and controls overall, but twPdi half relaxation time progressively increased in parallel with dyspnoea severity (ANOVA p=0.03), while sniff Pdi progressively decreased (ANOVA p=0.05). DVAI was lower in patients versus controls (30±27% vs 79±6%, p<0.01) and was associated with dyspnoea (ANOVA p=0.05).Interpretation: Inspiratory muscle dysfunction with impaired central voluntary activation of the diaphragm is present one year after severe COVID-19 ARDS treated with IMV, and relates to dyspnoea.Trial Registration: This prospective case-control study was registered with number, (NCT04854863)Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the local ethics committee (Ethikkommission an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen, CTCA-A-Nr. 20-515, AZ EK 443/20).

16.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(2): 141-154, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to objectify and compare persisting self-reported symptoms in initially hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by applying clinical standardized measures. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection including medical history, neurological examination, blood markers, neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Fifty patients with persisting symptoms for at least 4 weeks were included and classified by initial hospitalization status. Median time from SARS-CoV-2 detection to investigation was 29.3 weeks (range 3.3-57.9). Although individual cognitive performance was generally within the normative range in both groups, mostly mild deficits were found in attention, executive functions, and memory. Hospitalized patients performed worse in global cognition, logical reasoning, and processes of verbal memory. In both groups, fatigue severity was associated with reduced performance in attention and psychomotor speed tasks (rs = -0.40, p < 0.05) and reduced quality of life (EQ5D, rs = 0.57, p < 0.001) and with more persisting symptoms (median 3 vs. 6, p < 0.01). PROMs identified fatigue, reduced sleep quality, and increased anxiety and depression in both groups but more pronounced in non-hospitalized patients. Brain MRI revealed microbleeds exclusively in hospitalized patients (n = 5). INTERPRETATION: Regardless of initial COVID-19 severity, an individuals' mental and physical health can be severely impaired in the long-term limitedly objectified by clinical standard diagnostic with abnormalities primarily found in hospitalized patients. This needs to be considered when planning rehabilitation therapies and should give rise to new biomarker research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Quality of Life , Self Report , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542839

ABSTRACT

Many of the approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are based on a stabilized variant of the spike protein. This raises the question of whether the immune response against the stabilized spike is identical to the immune response that is elicited by the native spike in the case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a peptide array-based approach, we analysed the binding of antibodies from Comirnaty-elicited, convalescent, and control sera to the peptides covering the spike protein. A total of 37 linear epitopes were identified. A total of 26 of these epitopes were almost exclusively recognized by the convalescent sera. Mapping these epitopes to the spike structures revealed that most of these 26 epitopes are masked in the pre-fusion structure. In particular, in the conserved central helix, three epitopes that are only exposed in the post-fusion conformation were identified. This indicates a higher spike-specific antibody diversity in convalescent sera. These differences could be relevant for the breadth of spike-specific immune response.

18.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 34: 101560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540946

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old female patient with B-cell depletion due to treatment with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody was admitted for worsening COVID-19. Overall, she had persistent viral shedding, worsening respiratory failure, and progressive pneumonia that did not improve despite dexamethasone and antibiotic therapy. After administration of bamlanivimab, a monoclonal antibody with high affinity for the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, inflammatory markers rapidly decreased, SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR became negative, and the patient improved clinically and radiologically. In conclusion, we demonstrated successful treatment of prolonged COVID-19 in a patient with severe B-cell aplasia with a virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

19.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5911-5924, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed reasonable outcomes. However, recent studies indicated a negative trend and analysis is needed. METHODS: Baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, and outcomes of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 were analyzed in a retrospective single-center study. We included hospital admissions until February 28, 2021; patients were followed until discharge/death. Eventually, we compared data between patients hospitalized before and after September 1, 2020. RESULTS: Median age of patients treated with ECMO (n=39) was 56 years; most patients were males (n=28, 72%). Median mechanical ventilation time (prior to ECMO) was 6 days, while the median ECMO duration was 19 days. Overall survival rate was 41%. In the sub-analysis, survival until discharge in the first and second epidemic waves was 53% (n=19) and 30% (n=20), respectively (P=0.2). At baseline, compared with patients of the first wave, those of the second wave had higher median body mass index (28.2 vs. 31.1 kg/m2, respectively, P=0.02), bicarbonate (27 vs. 31.8 mmol/L, respectively, P=0.033), plasma free hemoglobin (36 vs. 58 mg/L, respectively, P=0.013), alanine aminotransferase (33 vs. 52 U/L, respectively, P=0.018), and pH (7.29 vs. 7.42, respectively, P=0.005), lower rate of pulmonary hypertension (32% vs. 0%, respectively, P=0.008), lower positive end-expiratory pressure (14 vs. 12 cmH2O, respectively, P=0.04), longer median ECMO duration (16 vs. 24.5 days, respectively, P=0.074), and more frequent major bleeding events (42% vs. 80%, respectively, P=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 had an overall survival rate of 41%. Similar to international registries, we observed less favorable outcomes during the second wave. Further research is needed to confirm this signal and find predictors for mortality.

20.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526837

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals worldwide. Objective biomarkers for early risk stratification and clinical management are still lacking. The aim of this work was to determine whether bioactive adrenomedullin can assist in the risk stratification and clinical management of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Fifty-three patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included in this prospective observational cohort study between March and April 2020. Bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) plasma concentration was measured daily for seven days after admission. The prognostic value and clinical significance of bio-ADM plasma levels were evaluated for the severity of respiratory failure, the need for extracorporeal organ support and outcome (28-day mortality). Bio-ADM levels increased with the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; p < 0.001) and were significantly elevated in invasively ventilated patients (p = 0.006) and patients in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.040) or renal replacement therapy (RRT; p < 0.001) compared to patients without these conditions. Non-survivors showed significantly higher bio-ADM levels than survivors (p = 0.010). Bio-ADM levels predicted 28-day mortality (C-index 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.87, p < 0.001). Bio-ADM plasma levels correlate with disease severity, the need for extracorporeal organ assistance, and outcome, and highlight the promising value of bio-ADM in the early risk stratification and management of patients with COVID-19.

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