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2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 675, 2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388807

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 186, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) measured by transpulmonary thermodilution reflect the degree of lung injury. Whether EVLWi and PVPI are different between non-COVID-19 ARDS and the ARDS due to COVID-19 has never been reported. We aimed at comparing EVLWi, PVPI, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in patients with COVID-19 ARDS vs. ARDS of other origin. METHODS: Between March and October 2020, in an observational study conducted in intensive care units from three university hospitals, 60 patients with COVID-19-related ARDS monitored by transpulmonary thermodilution were compared to the 60 consecutive non-COVID-19 ARDS admitted immediately before the COVID-19 outbreak between December 2018 and February 2020. RESULTS: Driving pressure was similar between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, at baseline as well as during the study period. Compared to patients without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 exhibited higher EVLWi, both at the baseline (17 (14-21) vs. 15 (11-19) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.03) and at the time of its maximal value (24 (18-27) vs. 21 (15-24) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.01). Similar results were observed for PVPI. In COVID-19 patients, the worst ratio between arterial oxygen partial pressure over oxygen inspired fraction was lower (81 (70-109) vs. 100 (80-124) mmHg, respectively, p = 0.02) and prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were more frequently used than in patients without COVID-19. COVID-19 patients had lower maximal lactate level and maximal norepinephrine dose than patients without COVID-19. Day-60 mortality was similar between groups (57% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.45). The maximal value of EVLWi and PVPI remained independently associated with outcome in the whole cohort. CONCLUSION: Compared to ARDS patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 had similar lung mechanics, but higher EVLWi and PVPI values from the beginning of the disease. This was associated with worse oxygenation and with more requirement of prone positioning and ECMO. This is compatible with the specific lung inflammation and severe diffuse alveolar damage related to COVID-19. By contrast, patients with COVID-19 had fewer hemodynamic derangement. Eventually, mortality was similar between groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04337983). Registered 30 March 2020-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04337983 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Extravascular Lung Water/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/complications , Hemodynamics , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Edema/metabolism , Thermodilution
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 77, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a heavy burden in terms of health care resources. Future decision-making policies require consistent data on the management and prognosis of the older patients (> 70 years old) with COVID-19 admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Characteristics, management, and prognosis of critically ill old patients (> 70 years) were extracted from the international prospective COVID-ICU database. A propensity score weighted-comparison evaluated the impact of intubation upon admission on Day-90 mortality. RESULTS: The analysis included 1199 (28% of the COVID-ICU cohort) patients (median [interquartile] age 74 [72-78] years). Fifty-three percent, 31%, and 16% were 70-74, 75-79, and over 80 years old, respectively. The most frequent comorbidities were chronic hypertension (62%), diabetes (30%), and chronic respiratory disease (25%). Median Clinical Frailty Scale was 3 (2-3). Upon admission, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 154 (105-222). 740 (62%) patients were intubated on Day-1 and eventually 938 (78%) during their ICU stay. Overall Day-90 mortality was 46% and reached 67% among the 193 patients over 80 years old. Mortality was higher in older patients, diabetics, and those with a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio upon admission, cardiovascular dysfunction, and a shorter time between first symptoms and ICU admission. In propensity analysis, early intubation at ICU admission was associated with a significantly higher Day-90 mortality (42% vs 28%; hazard ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.24-2.27; p < 0·001). CONCLUSION: Patients over 70 years old represented more than a quarter of the COVID-19 population admitted in the participating ICUs during the first wave. Day-90 mortality was 46%, with dismal outcomes reported for patients older than 80 years or those intubated upon ICU admission.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 10-13, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed during the early outbreak period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the seasonal epidemics of other respiratory viral infections, in order to describe the extent of co-infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with other respiratory viruses. It also compared the diagnostic performances of upper respiratory tract (URT) and lower respiratory tract (LRT) samples for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From 25 January to 29 March 2020, all URT and LRT samples collected from patients with suspected COVID-19 received in the virology laboratory of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital (Paris, France) were simultaneously tested for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. RESULTS: A total of 1423 consecutive patients were tested: 677 (47.6%) males, 746 (52.4%) females, median age 50 (range, 1-103) years. Twenty-one (1.5%) patients were positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 was significantly higher in LRT than in URT (53.6% vs. 13.4%; p<0.0001). The analysis of paired samples from 117 (8.2%) patients showed that SARS-CoV-2 load was lower in URT than in LRT samples in 65% of cases. CONCLUSION: The detection of other respiratory viruses in patients during this epidemic period could not rule out SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Furthermore, LRT samples increased the accuracy of diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory System/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Young Adult
8.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002124

ABSTRACT

Mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seem particularly susceptible to AKI. Our hypothesis was that the renal blood flow could be more compromised in SARS-CoV-2 patients than in patients with "classical" ARDS. We compared the renal resistivity index (RRI) and the renal venous flow (RVF) in ARDS patients with SARS-CoV-2 and in ARDS patients due to other etiologies. Prospective, observational pilot study performed on 30 mechanically ventilated patients (15 with SARS-COV-2 ARDS and 15 with ARDS). Mechanical ventilation settings included constant-flow controlled ventilation, a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight and the PEEP level titrated to the lowest driving pressure. Ultrasound Doppler measurements of RRI and RVF pattern were performed in each patient. Patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS had higher RRI than patients with ARDS (0.71[0.67-0.78] vs 0.64[0.60-0.74], p = 0.04). RVF was not-continuous in 9/15 patients (71%) in the SARS-COV-2 ARDS group and in and 5/15 (33%) in the ARDS group (p = 0.27). A linear correlation was found between PEEP and RRI in patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS (r2 = 0.31; p = 0.03) but not in patients with ARDS. Occurrence of AKI was 53% in patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS and 33% in patients with ARDS (p = 0.46). We found a more pronounced impairment in renal blood flow in mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-COV-2 ARDS, compared with patients with "classical" ARDS.

13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(11): 1121-1131, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can have symptoms that rapidly evolve to profound hypoxaemia and death. The efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe ARDS in the context of COVID-19 is unclear. We aimed to establish the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with respiratory failure and COVID-19 treated with ECMO. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was done in the Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network, comprising five intensive care units (ICUs) and included patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 associated ARDS. Patient demographics and daily pre-ECMO and on-ECMO data and outcomes were collected. Possible outcomes over time were categorised into four different states (states 1-4): on ECMO, in the ICU and weaned off ECMO, alive and out of ICU, or death. Daily probabilities of occupation in each state and of transitions between these states until day 90 post-ECMO onset were estimated with use of a multi-state Cox model stratified for each possible transition. Follow-up was right-censored on July 10, 2020. FINDINGS: From March 8 to May 2, 2020, 492 patients with COVID-19 were treated in our ICUs. Complete day-60 follow-up was available for 83 patients (median age 49 [IQR 41-56] years and 61 [73%] men) who received ECMO. Pre-ECMO, 78 (94%) patients had been prone-positioned; their median driving pressure was 18 (IQR 16-21) cm H2O and PaO2/FiO2 was 60 (54-68) mm Hg. At 60 days post-ECMO initiation, the estimated probabilities of occupation in each state were 6% (95% CI 3-14) for state 1, 18% (11-28) for state 2, 45% (35-56) for state 3, and 31% (22-42) for state 4. 35 (42%) patients had major bleeding and four (5%) had a haemorrhagic stroke. 30 patients died. INTERPRETATION: The estimated 60-day survival of ECMO-rescued patients with COVID-19 was similar to that of studies published in the past 2 years on ECMO for severe ARDS. If another COVID-19 outbreak occurs, ECMO should be considered for patients developing refractory respiratory failure despite optimised care. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , France , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(9): 1714-1722, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709553

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is creating an unprecedented healthcare crisis. Understanding the determinants of mortality is crucial to optimise intensive care unit (ICU) resource use and to identify targets for improving survival. METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, we included 379 COVID-19 patients admitted to four ICUs between 20 February and 24 April 2020 and categorised according to time from disease onset to ICU admission. A Cox proportional-hazards model identified factors associated with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Median age was 66 years (53-68) and 292 (77%) were men. The main comorbidities included obesity and overweight (67%), hypertension (49.6%) and diabetes (30.1%). Median time from disease onset (i.e., viral symptoms) to ICU admission was 8 (6-11) days (missing for three); 161 (42.5%) patients were admitted within a week of disease onset, 173 (45.6%) between 8 and 14 days, and 42 (11.1%) > 14 days after disease onset; day 28 mortality was 26.4% (22-31) and decreased as time from disease onset to ICU admission increased, from 37 to 21% and 12%, respectively. Patients admitted within the first week had higher SOFA scores, more often had thrombocytopenia or acute kidney injury, had more limited radiographic involvement, and had significantly higher blood IL-6 levels. Age, COPD, immunocompromised status, time from disease onset, troponin concentration, and acute kidney injury were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The excess mortality in patients admitted within a week of disease onset reflected greater non-respiratory severity. Therapeutic interventions against SARS-CoV-2 might impact different clinical endpoints according to time since disease onset.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Troponin/blood
16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 418, 2020 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is spreading worldwide. To date, no specific treatment has convincingly demonstrated its efficacy. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have potential interest, but virological and clinical data are scarce, especially in critically ill patients. METHODS: The present report took the opportunity of compassionate use and successive drug shortages to compare the effects of two therapeutic options, lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, as compared to standard of care only. The primary outcomes were treatment escalation (intubation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation support, or renal replacement therapy) after day 1 until day 28. Secondary outcomes included ventilator-free days at day 28, mortality at day 14 and day 28, treatment safety issues and changes in respiratory tracts, and plasma viral load (as estimated by cycle threshold value) between admission and day 7. RESULTS: Eighty patients were treated during a 4-week period and included in the analysis: 22 (28%) received standard of care only, 20 (25%) patients received lopinavir/ritonavir associated to standard of care, and 38 (47%) patients received hydroxychloroquine and standard of care. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the 3 groups. Treatment escalation occurred in 9 (41%), 10 (50%), and 15 (39%) patients who received standard of care only, standard of care and lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care and hydroxychloroquine, respectively (p = 0.567). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 and mortality at day 14 and day 28. Finally, there was no significant change between groups in viral respiratory or plasma load between admission and day 7. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia, no difference was found between hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir as compared to standard of care only on the proportion of patients who needed treatment escalation at day 28. Further randomized controlled trials are required to demonstrate whether these drugs may be useful in this context.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
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