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Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):194, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570350


Background: The CORAL study is a cross-sectional study of the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on allergic and autoimmune dysregulation of infants born in March, April and May 2020, during Ireland's 1 st COVID-19 pandemic Lockdown. Method: Invitations were sent to families of 3065 term, singleton babies. Exclusion criteria were ante-natal PCR-proven SARSCoV-2 in a parent or co-dwelling person, IV antibiotics in neonatal period, multiple births and major congenital anomalies. At 6 months babies were invited to attend CHI Connolly for point-of-care SARSCoV-2 antibody testing. Results: Of the 3065 letters sent 353 babies were enrolled.53.7% of enrolled infants were male, 78.4% were white-Irish, average birth weight was 3.506kg. 45% were first-born and 95.5% of mothers were educated at 3 rd level or higher. Babies' average number of close contacts other than household members was 2.3 during lockdown and 5.6 afterwards. 42.5% were reported to be currently breast-fed at enrolment. By 6 months, 97% of infants had solid foods introduced but only 24.5% had tried egg and 9.6% had tried peanut. Complete primary immunisation uptake at 6 months was 99%. Lastly, 3 babies out of 200 (1.3%) tested showed presence of IgM & IgG SARSCoV-2 antibodies;2 were PCR negative, the other PCR positive. Conclusion: Initial breastfeeding and immunisation uptake to 6 months are reassuringly high in this self-selected, highly-educated cohort. The rare positive antibody tests suggest recent or current infection, so newborn babies appear to have been protected from SARSCoV-2 exposure during the 1 st COVID Pandemic lockdown.

Irish Medical Journal ; 113(9):1-2, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1013759
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(6): 943-952, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696640


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an acute shortage of regulation-tested masks. Many of the alternatives available to hospitals have not been certified, leaving uncertainty about their ability to properly protect healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 transmission. OBJECTIVE: For situations where regulatory methods are not accessible, we present experimental methods to evaluate mask filtration and breathability quickly via cost-effective approaches (e.g., ~$2000 USD) that could be replicated in communities of need without extensive infrastructure. We demonstrate the need for screening by evaluating an existing diverse inventory of masks/respirators from a local hospital. METHODS: Two experimental approaches are presented to examine both aerosol filtration and flow impedance (i.e., breathability). For one of the approaches ("quick assessment"), screening for appropriate filtration could be performed under 10 min per mask, on average. Mask fit tests were conducted in tandem but are not the focus of this study. RESULTS: Tests conducted of 47 nonregulation masks reveal variable performance. A number of commercially available masks in hospital inventories perform similarly to N95 masks for aerosol filtration of 0.2 µm and above, but there is a range of masks with relatively lower filtration efficiencies (e.g., <90%) and a subset with poorer filtration (e.g., <70%). All masks functioned acceptably for breathability, and impedance was not correlated with filtration efficiency. SIGNIFICANCE: With simplified tests, organizations with mask/respirator shortages and uncertain inventories can make informed decisions about use and procurement.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Aerosols , Filtration , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478332


Feed has been shown to be a vector for viral transmission. Four experiments were conducted to: 1) determine if medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are effective mitigants when applied to feed both pre- and post-porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inoculation measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 2) evaluate varying levels and combinations of MCFA measured by qRT-PCR, and 3) evaluate selected treatments in bioassay to determine infectivity. In exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of treatment (0.3% commercial formaldehyde [CF] product, Sal CURB [Kemin Industries, Inc.; Des Moines, IA], or 1% MCFA blend (Blend) of 1:1:1 C6:C8:C10 [PMI, Arden Hills, MN]) and timing of application (pre- or post-inoculation with PEDV) plus a positive control (PC; feed inoculated with PEDV and no treatment). All combinations of treatment and timing decreased detectable PEDV compared with the PC (P < 0.05). Pre-inoculation treatment elicited decreased magnitude of PEDV detection (cycle threshold value) compared with post-inoculation (P = 0.009). Magnitude of PEDV detection was decreased for CF compared with Blend (P < 0.0001). In exp. 2, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 5) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0, 6 to 8) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0, 9 to 11) 0.125% to 0.33% C10:0, and 12 to 15) 0.125% to 0.66% C5:0. Treating feed with 0.33% C8:0 resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) PEDV detection compared with all other treatments. Increasing concentration of each individual MCFA decreased PEDV detectability (P < 0.042). In exp. 3, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 7) 0.25% to 1% Blend, 8 to 10) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C8:0, 11 to 13) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C10:0, and 14 to 16) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0 + C10:0. Treating feed with CF, 0.5% Blend, 0.75% Blend, 1% Blend, all levels of C6:0+C8:0, 0.25% C6:0 + 0.25% C10:0, 0.33% C6:0 + 0.33% C10:0, 0.25% C8:0 + 0.25% C10:0, or 0.33% C8:0 + 0.33% C10:0 elicited decreased detection of PEDV compared with PC (P < 0.05). Increasing concentration of each MCFA combination decreased PEDV detectability (linear, P < 0.012). In exp. 4, feed was treated pre-inoculation with: 1) no treatment (PC), 2) 0.3% CF, 3) 0.5% Blend, or 4) 0.3% C8:0 and analyzed via qRT-PCR and bioassay. Adding 0.5% Blend or 0.3% C8:0 resulted in decreased PEDV compared with PC and only PC resulted in a positive bioassay. Therefore, MCFA can decrease detection of PEDV in feed. Further, inclusion of lower levels of MCFA than previously evaluated are effective against PEDV.

Animal Feed/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Food Contamination/analysis , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology