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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 491, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947506

ABSTRACT

The furin cleavage site (FCS) in SARS-CoV-2 is unique within the Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SrC) species. We re-assessed diverse SrC from European horseshoe bats and analyzed the spike-encoding genomic region harboring the FCS in SARS-CoV-2. We reveal molecular features in SrC such as purine richness and RNA secondary structures that resemble those required for FCS acquisition in avian influenza viruses. We discuss the potential acquisition of FCS through molecular mechanisms such as nucleotide substitution, insertion, or recombination, and show that a single nucleotide exchange in two European bat-associated SrC may suffice to enable furin cleavage. Furthermore, we show that FCS occurrence is variable in bat- and rodent-borne counterparts of human coronaviruses. Our results suggest that furin cleavage sites can be acquired in SrC via conserved molecular mechanisms known in other reservoir-bound RNA viruses and thus support a natural origin of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Furin/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Nucleotides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1708-1712, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933542

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Mu variant emerged in Colombia in 2021 and spread globally. In 49 serum samples from vaccinees and COVID-19 survivors in Colombia, neutralization was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for Mu than a parental strain and variants of concern. Only the Omicron variant of concern demonstrated higher immune evasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Microorganisms ; 10(4)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834844

ABSTRACT

Spillover of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been documented. However, it is unclear if this is a phenomenon specific to North American deer or is a broader problem. We evaluated pre and pandemic exposure of German and Austrian deer species using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralization assay. In stark contrast to North American white-tailed deer, we found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 857322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809402

ABSTRACT

Carnivores such as cats and minks are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Brazil is a global COVID-19 hot spot and several cases of human-to-cat transmission have been documented. We investigated the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by testing 547 domestic cats sampled between July-November 2020 from seven states in southern, southeastern, and northeastern Brazil. Moreover, we investigated whether immune responses elicited by enzootic coronaviruses affect SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats. We found infection with significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Gamma variant of concern, endemic in Brazil during 2020, than against an early SARS-CoV-2 B.1 isolate (p<0.0001), validating the use of Gamma for further testing. The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Brazilian cats during late 2020 validated by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) was 7.3% (95% CI, 5.3-9.8). There was no significant difference in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in cats between Brazilian states, suggesting homogeneous infection levels ranging from 4.6% (95% CI, 2.2-8.4) to 11.4% (95% CI, 6.7-17.4; p=0.4438). Seroprevalence of the prototypic cat coronavirus Feline coronavirus (FCoV) in a PRNT90 was high at 33.3% (95% CI, 24.9-42.5) and seroprevalence of Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was low at 1.7% (95% CI, 0.2-5.9) in a PRNT90. Neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FCoV than for SARS-CoV-2 (p=0.0001), consistent with relatively more recent infection of cats with SARS-CoV-2. Neither the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers (p=0.6390), nor SARS-CoV-2 infection status were affected by FCoV serostatus (p=0.8863). Our data suggest that pre-existing immunity against enzootic coronaviruses neither prevents, nor enhances SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats. High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence already during the first year of the pandemic substantiates frequent infection of domestic cats and raises concerns on potential SARS-CoV-2 mutations escaping human immunity upon spillback.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Cattle , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Microorganisms ; 10(4):748, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762497

ABSTRACT

Spillover of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been documented. However, it is unclear if this is a phenomenon specific to North American deer or is a broader problem. We evaluated pre and pandemic exposure of German and Austrian deer species using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralization assay. In stark contrast to North American white-tailed deer, we found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327754

ABSTRACT

Spillover of SARS-CoV-2 to North American white tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) has been documented. We evaluated pre and pandemic exposure of German and Austrian deer species using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralization assay. In stark contrast to North American white tailed deer, we found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Article Summary Line Using a sensitive serological assay, 433 pre and pandemic deer samples from Germany and Austria tested negative for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies highlighting a major difference between central European and North American deer exposure and in their epidemiologic roles.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 205-209, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599343

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Delta variant epidemiology in Africa is unknown. We found Delta variant was introduced in Benin during April-May 2021 and became predominant within 2 months, after which a steep increase in reported coronavirus disease incidence occurred. Benin might require increased nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Humans
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296961

ABSTRACT

The furin cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 is unique within the Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SrC) species. We re-assessed diverse SrC from European horseshoe bats and reveal molecular determinants such as purine richness, RNA secondary structures and viral quasispecies potentially enabling furin cleavage. Furin cleavage thus likely emerged from the SrC bat reservoir via molecular mechanisms conserved across reservoir-bound RNA viruses, supporting a natural origin of SARS-CoV-2.

9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295526

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) show reduced neutralization by vaccine-induced and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We tested therapeutic equine polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against four VoC (alpha, beta, epsilon and gamma). We show that equine pAbs efficiently neutralize VoC, suggesting they are an effective, broad coverage, low-cost and a scalable COVID-19 treatment.

10.
mSphere ; 6(6): e0068521, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532975

ABSTRACT

Latin America has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 burden in rural settings in Latin America is unclear. We performed a cross-sectional, population-based, random-selection SARS-CoV-2 serologic study during March 2021 in the rural population of San Martin region, northern Peru. In total, 563 persons from 288 houses across 10 provinces were enrolled, reaching 0.2% of the total rural population of San Martin. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was done using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and reactive sera were confirmed using a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). Validation of the testing algorithm using prepandemic sera from two regions of Peru showed false-positive results in the CLIA (23/84 sera; 27%) but not in the sVNT, highlighting the pitfalls of SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in tropical regions and the high specificity of the two-step algorithm used in this study. An overall 59.0% seroprevalence (95% confidence interval [CI], 55 to 63%) corroborated intense SARS-CoV-2 spread in San Martin. Seroprevalence rates between the 10 provinces varied from 41.3 to 74.0% (95% CI, 30 to 84%). Higher seroprevalence was not associated with population size, population density, surface area, mean altitude, or poverty index in Spearman correlations. Seroprevalence and reported incidence diverged substantially between provinces, suggesting regional biases of COVID-19 surveillance data. Potentially, limited health care access due to environmental, economic, and cultural factors might lead to undetected infections in rural populations. Additionally, test avoidance to evade mandatory quarantine might affect rural regions more than urban regions. Serologic diagnostics should be pursued in resource-limited settings to inform country-level surveillance and vaccination strategies and to support control measures for COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Latin America is a global hot spot of the COVID-19 pandemic. Serologic studies in Latin America have been mostly performed in urban settings. Rural populations comprise 20% of the total Latin American population. Nevertheless, information on COVID-19 spread in rural settings is scarce. Using a representative population-based seroprevalence study, we detected a high seroprevalence in rural populations in San Martin, northern Peru, in 2021, reaching 41 to 74%. However, seroprevalence and reported incidence diverged substantially between regions, potentially due to limited health care access or test avoidance due to mandatory quarantine. Our results suggest that rural populations are highly affected by SARS-CoV-2 even though they are sociodemographically distinct from urban populations and that highly specific serological diagnostics should be performed in resource-limited settings to support public health strategies of COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests , Young Adult
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 205-209, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528804

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Delta variant epidemiology in Africa is unknown. We found Delta variant was introduced in Benin during April-May 2021 and became predominant within 2 months, after which a steep increase in reported coronavirus disease incidence occurred. Benin might require increased nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Humans
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 735853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436006

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern show reduced neutralization by vaccine-induced and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies; therefore, treatment alternatives are needed. We tested therapeutic equine polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) that are being assessed in clinical trials in Costa Rica against five globally circulating variants of concern: alpha, beta, epsilon, gamma and delta, using plaque reduction neutralization assays. We show that equine pAbs efficiently neutralize the variants of concern, with inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.146-1.078 µg/mL, which correspond to extremely low concentrations when compared to pAbs doses used in clinical trials. Equine pAbs are an effective, broad coverage, low-cost and a scalable COVID-19 treatment.

14.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab051, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412522

ABSTRACT

Characterisation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic diversity through space and time can reveal trends in virus importation and domestic circulation and permit the exploration of questions regarding the early transmission dynamics. Here, we present a detailed description of SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology in Ecuador, one of the hardest hit countries during the early stages of the coronavirus-19 pandemic. We generated and analysed 160 whole genome sequences sampled from all provinces of Ecuador in 2020. Molecular clock and phylogeographic analysis of these sequences in the context of global SARS-CoV-2 diversity enable us to identify and characterise individual transmission lineages within Ecuador, explore their spatiotemporal distributions, and consider their introduction and domestic circulation. Our results reveal a pattern of multiple international importations across the country, with apparent differences between key provinces. Transmission lineages were mostly introduced before the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions, with differential degrees of persistence and national dissemination.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2889-2903, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379955

ABSTRACT

Intense transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Africa might promote emergence of variants. We describe 10 SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Benin during early 2021 that harbored mutations associated with variants of concern. Benin-derived SARS-CoV-2 strains were more efficiently neutralized by antibodies derived from vaccinees than patients, warranting accelerated vaccination in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation
16.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(4): 101603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter use of ivermectin amongst other drugs as SARS-CoV-2 treatment has been increasingly common, despite the lack of evidence on its clinical efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ivermectin use on production of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in health care workers (HCW) diagnosed with COVID-19 and of Th1/Th2 cytokines by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the same cohort (PBMCs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated seroconversion and neutralizing antibodies production in HCW at Complexo Hospitalar Universitário Professor Edgard Santos (Salvador, Brazil), diagnosed with COVID-19 from May to July, 2020, as well as in vitro production of antibody against SARS-CoV-2 and Th1/Th2 cytokines. Analyses were performed between December 2020 and February 2021. Participants were stratified according to the use of ivermectin (≤ 1 dose vs. multiple doses) for treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: 45 HCW were included (62% women). Mean age was 39 years, and disease severity was similar across groups. Neutralizing antibodies were detected less frequently in multiple doses (70%) vs. ≤ 1 dose (97%) groups, p = 0.02). PBMCs of patients in multiple doses group also were less likely to produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following in vitro stimulation with purified spike protein in comparison with patients in ≤ 1 dose group (p < 0.001). PBMC´s production of Th1/Th2 cytokines levels was similar across groups. Abdominal pain (15% vs 46%, p = 0.04), diarrhea (21% vs. 55%, p = 0.05) and taste perversion (0% vs. 18%, p = 0.05) were more frequently reported by participants that used multiple doses of ivermectin. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no evidence for differential disease severity upon ivermectin use for treatment of COVID-19 it was associated with more gastro-intestinal side-effects and impairment of anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies production, in a dose dependent manner. This potentially impacts the effectiveness of immune response and the risk of reinfection and warrants additional studies for clarifying the mechanisms and consequences of such immunomodulatory effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
17.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287277

ABSTRACT

The viral family Coronaviridae comprises four genera, termed Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltacoronavirus. Recombination events have been described in many coronaviruses infecting humans and other animals. However, formal analysis of the recombination patterns, both in terms of the involved genome regions and the extent of genetic divergence between partners, are scarce. Common methods of recombination detection based on phylogenetic incongruences (e.g., a phylogenetic compatibility matrix) may fail in cases where too many events diminish the phylogenetic signal. Thus, an approach comparing genetic distances in distinct genome regions (pairwise distance deviation matrix) was set up. In alpha, beta, and delta-coronaviruses, a low incidence of recombination between closely related viruses was evident in all genome regions, but it was more extensive between the spike gene and other genome regions. In contrast, avian gammacoronaviruses recombined extensively and exist as a global cloud of genes with poorly corresponding genetic distances in different parts of the genome. Spike, but not other structural proteins, was most commonly exchanged between coronaviruses. Recombination patterns differed between coronavirus genera and corresponded to the modular structure of the spike: recombination traces were more pronounced between spike domains (N-terminal and C-terminal parts of S1 and S2) than within domains. The variability of possible recombination events and their uneven distribution over the genome suggest that compatibility of genes, rather than mechanistic or ecological limitations, shapes recombination patterns in coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Birds/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104872, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202173

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing is a key strategy in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Latin America is the hardest-hit region of the world, accumulating almost 20% of COVID-19 cases worldwide. In Costa Rica, from the first detected case on March 6th to December 31st almost 170,000 cases have been reported. We analyzed the genomic variability during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Costa Rica using 185 sequences, 52 from the first months of the pandemic, and 133 from the current wave. Three GISAID clades (G, GH, and GR) and three PANGOLIN lineages (B.1, B.1.1, and B.1.291) were predominant, suggesting multiple re-introductions from other regions. The whole-genome variant calling analysis identified a total of 283 distinct nucleotide variants, following a power-law distribution with 190 single nucleotide mutations in a single sequence, and only 16 mutations were found in >5% sequences. These mutations were distributed through the whole genome. The prevalence of worldwide-found variant D614G in the Spike (98.9% in Costa Rica), ORF8 L84S (1.1%) is similar to what is found elsewhere. Interestingly, the frequency of mutation T1117I in the Spike has increased during the current pandemic wave beginning in May 2020 in Costa Rica, reaching 29.2% detection in the full genome analyses in November 2020. This variant has been observed in less than 1% of the GISAID reported sequences worldwide in 2020. Structural modeling of the Spike protein with the T1117I mutation suggests a potential effect on the viral oligomerization needed for cell infection, but no differences with other genomes on transmissibility, severity nor vaccine effectiveness are predicted. In conclusion, genome analyses of the SARS-CoV-2 sequences over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Costa Rica suggest the introduction of lineages from other countries and the detection of mutations in line with other studies, but pointing out the local increase in the detection of Spike-T1117I variant. The genomic features of this virus need to be monitored and studied in further analyses as part of the surveillance program during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation , Genomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Costa Rica/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(7): e311-e319, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antigen point-of-care tests (AgPOCTs) can accelerate SARS-CoV-2 testing. As some AgPOCTs have become available, interest is growing in their utility and performance. Here we aimed to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of seven commercially available AgPOCT devices. METHODS: In a single-centre, laboratory evaluation study, we compared AgPOCT products from seven suppliers: the Abbott Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test, the RapiGEN BIOCREDIT COVID-19 Ag, the Healgen Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test Cassette (Swab), the Coris BioConcept COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip, the R-Biopharm RIDA QUICK SARS-CoV-2 Antigen, the nal von minden NADAL COVID-19 Ag Test, and the Roche-SD Biosensor SARS-CoV Rapid Antigen Test. Tests were evaluated on recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, cultured endemic and emerging coronaviruses, stored respiratory samples with known SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, stored samples from patients with respiratory pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2, and self-sampled swabs from healthy volunteers. We estimated analytical sensitivity in terms of approximate viral concentrations (quantified by real-time RT-PCR) that yielded positive AgPOCT results, and specificity in terms of propensity to generate false-positive results. FINDINGS: In 138 clinical samples with quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, the 95% limit of detection (concentration at which 95% of test results were positive) in six of seven AgPOCT products ranged between 2·07 × 106 and 2·86 × 107 copies per swab, with an outlier (RapiGEN) at 1·57 × 1010 copies per swab. The assays showed no cross-reactivity towards cell culture or tissue culture supernatants containing any of the four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV­229E, HCoV­NL63, HCoV­OC43, or HCoV­HKU1) or MERS-CoV, with the exception of the Healgen assay in one repeat test on HCoV-HKU1 supernatant. SARS-CoV was cross-detected by all assays. Cumulative specificities among stored clinical samples with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections (n=100) and self-samples from healthy volunteers (n=35; cumulative sample n=135) ranged between 98·5% (95% CI 94·2-99·7) and 100·0% (97·2-100·0) in five products, with two outliers at 94·8% (89·2-97·7; R-Biopharm) and 88·9% (82·1-93·4; Healgen). False-positive results did not appear to be associated with any specific respiratory pathogen. INTERPRETATION: The sensitivity range of most AgPOCTs overlaps with SARS-CoV-2 viral loads typically observed in the first week of symptoms, which marks the infectious period in most patients. The AgPOCTs with limit of detections that approximate virus concentrations at which patients are infectious might enable shortcuts in decision making in various areas of health care and public health. FUNDING: EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, German Ministry of Research, German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, German Ministry of Health, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
J Clin Virol ; 138: 104796, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152481

ABSTRACT

Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) can complement molecular diagnostics for COVID-19. The recommended temperature for storage of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs ranges between 2-30 °C. In the global South, mean temperatures can exceed 30 °C. In the global North, Ag-RDTs are often used in external testing facilities at low ambient temperatures. We assessed analytical sensitivity and specificity of eleven commercially-available SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs using different storage and operational temperatures, including short- or long-term storage and operation at recommended temperatures or at either 2-4 °C or at 37 °C. The limits of detection of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs under recommended conditions ranged from 1.0×106- 5.5×107 genome copies/mL of infectious SARS-CoV-2 cell culture supernatant. Despite long-term storage at recommended conditions, 10 min pre-incubation of Ag-RDTs and testing at 37 °C resulted in about ten-fold reduced sensitivity for five out of 11 SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs, including both Ag-RDTs currently listed for emergency use by the World Health Organization. After 3 weeks of storage at 37 °C, eight of the 11 SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs exhibited about ten-fold reduced sensitivity. Specificity of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs using cell culture supernatant from common respiratory viruses was not affected by storage and testing at 37 °C, whereas false-positive results occurred at outside temperatures of 2-4 °C for two out of six tested Ag-RDTs, again including an Ag-RDT recommended by the WHO. In summary, elevated temperatures impair sensitivity, whereas low temperatures impair specificity of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs. Consequences may include false-negative test results at clinically relevant virus concentrations compatible with transmission and false-positive results entailing unwarranted quarantine assignments. Storage and operation of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs at recommended conditions is essential for successful usage during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
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