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1.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917636

ABSTRACT

The urgent response to the COVID-19 pandemic required accelerated evaluation of many approved drugs as potential antiviral agents against the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Using cell-based, biochemical, and modeling approaches, we studied the approved HIV-1 nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC), as well as prodrugs tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and tenofovir disoproxilfumarate (TDF) for their antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2. A comprehensive set of in vitro data indicates that TFV, TAF, TDF, and FTC are inactive against SARS-CoV-2. None of the NRTIs showed antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infected A549-hACE2 cells or in primary normal human lung bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at concentrations up to 50 µM TAF, TDF, FTC, or 500 µM TFV. These results are corroborated by the low incorporation efficiency of respective NTP analogs by the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp), and lack of the RdRp inhibition. Structural modeling further demonstrated poor fitting of these NRTI active metabolites at the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp active site. Our data indicate that the HIV-1 NRTIs are unlikely direct-antivirals against SARS-CoV-2, and clinicians and researchers should exercise caution when exploring ideas of using these and other NRTIs to treat or prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Emtricitabine/pharmacology , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Nucleotides/pharmacology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Tenofovir/pharmacology , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
2.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(7): e0019822, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901915

ABSTRACT

In vitro selection of remdesivir-resistant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed the emergence of a V166L substitution, located outside of the polymerase active site of the Nsp12 protein, after 9 passages of a single lineage. V166L remained the only Nsp12 substitution after 17 passages (10 µM remdesivir), conferring a 2.3-fold increase in 50% effective concentration (EC50). When V166L was introduced into a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 virus, a 1.5-fold increase in EC50 was observed, indicating a high in vitro barrier to remdesivir resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
3.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(6): e0022222, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832332

ABSTRACT

Genetic variation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in the emergence and rapid spread of multiple variants throughout the pandemic, of which Omicron is currently the predominant variant circulating worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/variants of interest (VOC/VOI) have evidence of increased viral transmission, disease severity, or decreased effectiveness of vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. Remdesivir (RDV [VEKLURY]) is a nucleoside analog prodrug and the first FDA-approved antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Here, we present a comprehensive antiviral activity assessment of RDV and its parent nucleoside, GS-441524, against 10 current and former SARS-CoV-2 VOC/VOI clinical isolates by nucleoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction assay. Delta and Omicron variants remained susceptible to RDV and GS-441524, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values 0.30- to 0.62-fold of those observed against the ancestral WA1 isolate. All other tested variants exhibited EC50 values ranging from 0.13- to 2.3-fold of the observed EC50 values against WA1. Analysis of nearly 6 million publicly available variant isolate sequences confirmed that Nsp12, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) target of RDV and GS-441524, is highly conserved across variants, with only 2 prevalent changes (P323L and G671S). Using recombinant viruses, both RDV and GS-441524 retained potency against all viruses containing frequent variant substitutions or their combination. Taken together, these results highlight the conserved nature of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp12 and provide evidence of sustained SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of RDV and GS-441524 across the tested variants. The observed pan-variant activity of RDV supports its continued use for the treatment of COVID-19 regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(643): eabm3410, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752762

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains uncontrolled despite the rapid rollout of safe and effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, underscoring the need to develop highly effective antivirals. In the setting of waning immunity from infection and vaccination, breakthrough infections are becoming increasingly common and treatment options remain limited. In addition, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, with their potential to escape neutralization by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, emphasizes the need to develop second-generation oral antivirals targeting highly conserved viral proteins that can be rapidly deployed to outpatients. Here, we demonstrate the in vitro antiviral activity and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of GS-621763, an orally bioavailable prodrug of GS-441524, the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, which targets the highly conserved virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. GS-621763 exhibited antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in lung cell lines and two different human primary lung cell culture systems. GS-621763 was also potently antiviral against a genetically unrelated emerging coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). The dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile observed after oral administration of GS-621763 translated to dose-dependent antiviral activity in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therapeutic GS-621763 administration reduced viral load and lung pathology; treatment also improved pulmonary function in COVID-19 mouse model. A direct comparison of GS-621763 with molnupiravir, an oral nucleoside analog antiviral that has recently received EUA approval, proved both drugs to be similarly efficacious in mice. These data support the exploration of GS-441524 oral prodrugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Prodrugs , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Nucleosides , Parents , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327574

ABSTRACT

Genetic variation of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence and rapid spread of multiple variants throughout the pandemic, of which Omicron is currently the predominant variant circulating worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or interest (VOC/VOI) have evidence of increased viral transmission, disease severity, or decreased effectiveness of vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. Remdesivir (RDV, VEKLURY ® ) is a nucleoside analog prodrug and the first FDA-approved antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Here we present a comprehensive antiviral activity assessment of RDV and its parent nucleoside, GS-441524, against 10 current and former SARS-CoV-2 VOC/VOI clinical isolates by nucleoprotein ELISA and plaque reduction assay. Delta and Omicron variants remained susceptible to RDV and GS-441524, with EC 50 values 0.31 to 0.62-fold of those observed against the ancestral WA1 isolate. All other tested variants exhibited EC 50 values ranging from 0.15 to 2.3-fold of the observed EC 50 values against WA1. Analysis of nearly 6 million publicly available variant isolate sequences confirmed that Nsp12, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) target of RDV and GS-441524, is highly conserved across variants with only 2 prevalent changes (P323L and G671S). Using recombinant viruses, both RDV and GS-441524 retained potency against all viruses containing frequent variant substitutions or their combination. Taken together, these results highlight the conserved nature of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp12 and provide evidence of sustained SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of RDV and GS-441524 across the tested variants. The observed pan-variant activity of RDV supports its continued use for the treatment of COVID-19 regardless of the SARS-CoV-2 variant.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327496

ABSTRACT

In vitro selection of remdesivir-resistant SARS-CoV-2 revealed the emergence of a V166L substitution, located outside of the polymerase active site of the nsp12 protein, after 9 passages. V166L remained the only nsp12 substitution after 17 passages at a final concentration of 10 μM RDV, conferring a 2.3-fold increase in EC 50 . When V166L was introduced into a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 virus, a 1.5-fold increase in EC 50 was observed, indicating a high in vitro barrier to RDV resistance.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319173

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is the only small-molecule antiviral approved to date for COVID-19 treatment, but its wider use is limited by intravenous delivery. An orally bioavailable remdesivir analog may boost therapeutic benefit by facilitating early administration to non-hospitalized patients. This study characterized the anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of GS-621763, an oral prodrug of remdesivir parent nucleoside GS-441524. Both GS-621763 and GS-441524 inhibited SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern (VoC) in cell culture. Oral GS-621763 was efficiently converted to plasma metabolite GS-441524, and in lungs to the triphosphate metabolite identical to that generated by remdesivir, demonstrating a consistent mechanism of activity. Twice-daily oral administration of 10 mg/kg GS-621763 reduced SARS-CoV-2 burden to near-undetectable levels. When dosed therapeutically against VoC P.1 gamma (γ), oral GS-621763 blocked virus replication and prevented transmission to untreated contact animals. These results demonstrate therapeutic efficacy of a much-needed orally bioavailable analog of remdesivir in a relevant animal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 5001-5017, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174625

ABSTRACT

A discovery program targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) identified C-nucleoside 4 (RSV A2 EC50 = 530 nM) as a phenotypic screening lead targeting the RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Prodrug exploration resulted in the discovery of remdesivir (1, GS-5734) that is >30-fold more potent than 4 against RSV in HEp-2 and NHBE cells. Metabolism studies in vitro confirmed the rapid formation of the active triphosphate metabolite, 1-NTP, and in vivo studies in cynomolgus and African Green monkeys demonstrated a >10-fold higher lung tissue concentration of 1-NTP following molar normalized IV dosing of 1 compared to that of 4. A once daily 10 mg/kg IV administration of 1 in an African Green monkey RSV model demonstrated a >2-log10 reduction in the peak lung viral load. These early data following the discovery of 1 supported its potential as a novel treatment for RSV prior to its development for Ebola and approval for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Caco-2 Cells , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Prodrugs/chemistry , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tissue Distribution , Tubercidin/analogs & derivatives , Tubercidin/chemistry , Viral Load
9.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107940, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635658

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the novel viral disease COVID-19. With no approved therapies, this pandemic illustrates the urgent need for broad-spectrum antiviral countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 and future emerging CoVs. We report that remdesivir (RDV) potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cultures (EC50 = 0.01 µM). Weaker activity is observed in Vero E6 cells (EC50 = 1.65 µM) because of their low capacity to metabolize RDV. To rapidly evaluate in vivo efficacy, we engineered a chimeric SARS-CoV encoding the viral target of RDV, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2. In mice infected with the chimeric virus, therapeutic RDV administration diminishes lung viral load and improves pulmonary function compared with vehicle-treated animals. These data demonstrate that RDV is potently active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo, supporting its further clinical testing for treatment of COVID-19.

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