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1.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(6):696-702, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928935

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the work situation of the personnel in Beijing Centers for Disease Prevention and Control during the novel coronavirns disease 2019 (C0VID-19) epidemic,and to provide references for improving the construction of the capital5 s disease control and prevention system. Methods Cross-sectional survey and cluster sanpling methods were used. A total of 422 municipal-level and 664 district-level professional technicians from CDCs who were mainly involved in epidemic prevention and control in Beijing were included in the study. Self-designed questionnaires were used to collect the basic information, work intensity and satisfaction and other data. The statistical description and test analysis were carried out. Results Among professionals, 64. 36% had nornal workload, and 76. 89% had overload during the epidemic prevention and control period. The proportion of disease control personnel expressing dissatisfaction "with the usual salary level "was 54. 51%, and the satisfaction with the professional title promotion w-as mostly at the average level (45. 58%). The proportions of satisfaction with the prevention and control work arrangements and logistical support during the COVID-19 epidemic were 49. 08% and 54. 42%, respectively. Only 21. 73% professionals were satisfied with the temporar w-ork subsidy. From the perspective of population distribution, staffs at the municipal and district levels and in different job positions were mainly dissatisfied with the salar level (all P<0. 05). Most of staffs who undertook different prevention and control responsibilities were satisfied with the work arrangements and logistics support (all P<0. 05), but they w-ere dissatisfied with the temporar work subsidies (H = 27. 076, P = 0. 012). Among the survey respondents, 44.48% had thoughts of resigning. Regardless of the municipal and district levels, different professional titles or positions, the wdllingness to resign was generally high (all P>0. 05). The primar reason for wanting to leave was the low salary level, followed by difficulty in promotion of professional titles and poor development prospects which were also major considerations. Conclusion It is suggested to improve the stability of CDCs staffs and promote the high-quality and sustainable development of the disease control and prevention system by improving the personnel allocation, strengthening the interdisciplinary talent reserve, improving the salary system and optimizing the professional title appointment mechanism.

2.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334805

ABSTRACT

Omicron sub-lineage BA.2 has rapidly surged globally, accounting for over 60% of recent SARS-CoV-2 infections. Newly acquired RBD mutations and high transmission advantage over BA.1 urge the investigation of BA.2's immune evasion capability. Here, we show that BA.2 causes strong neutralization resistance, comparable to BA.1, in vaccinated individuals' plasma. However, BA.2 displays more severe antibody evasion in BA.1 convalescents, and most prominently, in vaccinated SARS convalescents' plasma, suggesting a substantial antigenicity difference between BA.2 and BA.1. To specify, we determined the escaping mutation profiles1,2 of 714 SARS-CoV-2 RBD neutralizing antibodies, including 241 broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies isolated from SARS convalescents, and measured their neutralization efficacy against BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2. Importantly, BA.2 specifically induces large-scale escape of BA.1/BA.1.1effective broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies via novel mutations T376A, D405N, and R408S. These sites were highly conserved across sarbecoviruses, suggesting that Omicron BA.2 arose from immune pressure selection instead of zoonotic spillover. Moreover, BA.2 reduces the efficacy of S309 (Sotrovimab)3,4 and broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies targeting the similar epitope region, including BD55-5840. Structural comparisons of BD55-5840 in complexes with BA.1 and BA.2 spike suggest that BA.2 could hinder antibody binding through S371F-induced N343-glycan displacement. Intriguingly, the absence of G446S mutation in BA.2 enabled a proportion of 440-449 linear epitope targeting antibodies to retain neutralizing efficacy, including COV2-2130 (Cilgavimab)5. Together, we showed that BA.2 exhibits distinct antigenicity compared to BA.1 and provided a comprehensive profile of SARS-CoV-2 antibody escaping mutations. Our study offers critical insights into the humoral immune evading mechanism of current and future variants.

3.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326764

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs and showed that the NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlap with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A, and Q493R. Group E (S309 site)6 and F (CR3022 site)7 NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, N440K, and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, the neutralization potency of LYCoV016/LY-CoV555, REGN10933/REGN10987, AZD1061/AZD8895, and BRII-196 were greatly reduced by Omicron, while VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron would cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.

4.
Neuro-Oncology ; 23(SUPPL 6):vi111-vi112, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1634184

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Primary CNS lymphoma is a rare aggressive hematological malignancy. Current chemotherapy for induction phase is HD-MTX single agent or HD-MTX based combination regimen. We report a rare case whose left and right parietal lymphoma lesions in the brain responded to different induction therapy regimens during the induction phase. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old female presented with seizure and her brain MRI showed bilateral parietal brain lesions in January of 2020. Biopsy and work-up revealed primary CNS diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The patient underwent HD-MTX therapy. Brain MRI showed clear progression of left parietal lymphoma but stable right parietal lymphoma after two cycles of HD-MTX at 8 g/m2. The treatment was switched to a rituximab 750 mg/m2 weekly and temozolomide 150 mg/m2 daily one-week-on and one-week-off regimen. After 8 weeks, her brain MRI showed nearly complete response of her left parietal lymphoma to rituximab/temozolomide but progression of her right parietal lymphoma. She was switched back to HD-MTX and completed total 8 cycles. Her right parietal lymphoma lesion showed complete response to HD-MTX. The patient is doing well and has been off the treatment over the past 10 months and is waiting for consolidation therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation that has been postponed due to the COVID pandemic. DISCUSSION: Our case highlights the very rare heterogenous feature of primary CNS lymphoma responding to different treatment regimen. Biopsy of bilateral heterogeneous lesions may be indicated to compare the different molecular features of the lymphoma to find underlying mechanism if they respond to treatment differently. Specific treatment regimen should be selected based on the responsiveness of CNS lymphoma lesions or combination therapy is selected to cover the heterogeneous susceptibility to chemotherapy regimens.

5.
Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment ; 43(2):315-331, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1566898

ABSTRACT

Recent pandemic outbreak of the corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised widespread concerns about the importance of the bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are an important part of atmospheric aerosols. Due to its physico-chemical properties and inherent biological characteristics, bioaerosols play a key role in global ecosystem, climate change, air quality and public health. A large number of studies have been focused on the sampling and detection techniques of bioaerosols, disinfection protection, effects on health and environment. However, little is known about the source characteristics of bioaerosols. Therefore, the research status of airborne microbes source was focused, and the progress on the emission characteristics of natural and anthropogenic source of bioaerosols in the past 20 years was comprehensively summarized. Combined with our study, the main factors affecting the source emission and transport process were also highlighted, such as biogeographic regions, land-use types, and environmental factors. Subsequently, the various source analysis methods of current bioaerosols were discussed. Finally, the future work prospects of bioaerosols source characteristics were prospected. It is expected to provide reference for in-depth understanding of the source and transmission change mechanism of bioaerosols, and to better evaluate the level of atmospheric microbial pollution and monitor the aerosol transmission of pathogens. © 2021, Editorial Department of Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment. All right reserved.

6.
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology ; 128:237-238, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1113024
8.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 26(18 SUPPL), 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-992103

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the health care delivery system. The purpose of this study wasto determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods: Potential survey respondents were identified through partnerships with breast cancer organizationsincluding Dr. Susan Love Foundation for Breast Cancer Research, SHARE, Survivingbreastcancer.org, SistersNetwork Inc., the African American Breast Cancer Alliance, and through ResearchMatch.org. Study information wasshared via social media, websites, or email. Individuals were eligible for this study if they: 1) receive routine breastcancer screening, or 2) are undergoing diagnostic evaluation for breast cancer, or 3) had ever been diagnosed withbreast cancer. Participants accessed and completed the 10-15-minute REDCap survey either by emailing theresearch team and receiving a private survey link or by clicking a public link. The survey collected information onrespondent demographics;breast cancer screening and diagnosis;the extent to which screening, diagnosis, ortreatment had been changed, delayed, or canceled because of COVID-19;personal protective practices;extent ofworry about financial and health implications of COVID-19;and use of telemedicine. We used descriptive statisticalanalyses to better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on respondents. Results: There are currently 415 survey respondents, 404 of whom agreed to participate in the study. 46.8%(N=189) of respondents were white, 26.7% (N=108) Black, 6.7% (N=27) Asian, and 5.5% Hispanic or Latino (N=22).Most respondents were between the ages of 50 and 69 years (52.2%, N=211). 43.3% (N=175) of respondents hadbeen diagnosed with breast cancer and, of those, 36% (N=63) were in active treatment. More than a quarter ofparticipants (26.5%, N=107) reported delayed or canceled breast cancer care due to COVID-19;the most frequentlyaffected care was screening mammogram, ultrasound, or MRI (97.2%, N=104). 20.6% (N=13) of women in activetreatment reported delayed or canceled surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation visits. 22.3% (N=90) of respondentsreported that an in-person visit was changed to a phone call or videoconference, and 39.1% (N=158) said they haddiscussed COVID-19 with a health care provider. 29.1% (N=51) of those with breast cancer were worried or veryworried that the COVID-19 pandemic would make it harder for them to get cancer care;among those without breastcancer, 34.9% (N=80) were worried that COVID-19 would make it harder to obtain health care, including breastcancer screening and diagnosis. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to disrupt breast cancer-related care, primarily screening.Planning and coordination are necessary to ensure the timely return of these patients to care. Most participantsagreed to be contacted for follow-up, allowing us to investigate the long-term effects of delayed breast cancerscreening, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment on health outcomes.

9.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 164-168, 2020 Apr.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627698

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective To retrospectively analyze the forensic pathological postmortem examination and clinical data of children who died of viral pneumonia in identification of cause of death cases and to discuss the clinical characteristics and pathological features of viral pneumonia in children, in order to provide reference to pathological diagnosis of viral pneumonia in children caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. Methods Postmortem examination data from 61 cases of children whose causes of death were identified as viral pneumonia in recent years were collected from the Center of Forensic Identification, Southern Medical University. The gender, age, clinical symptoms and pathological features were comparatively analyzed. Results Among the 61 cases of children who died of viral pneumonia, most were within 2 years old (83.61%), and a large proportion died within 2 weeks after the onset of the disease (91.80%). Gross changes in postmortem examination included respiratory mucosal hyperemia, pleural effusion, pulmonary swelling, variegated pulmonary pleura and serosa, as well as focal pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. A large proportion of sick children had enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (83.61%) and thymic dysplasia (21.31%). Histopathological changes included edema of alveoli and interstitial substance, pneumorrhagia,shedding of alveolar epithelial cells, serous and (or) fibrous exudation in the alveoli, formation of viral inclusions, formation of transparent membranes, infiltration of inflammatory cells that mainly consisted of macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial substance and alveoli. Viral infections often affected the heart and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion The clinical symptoms of children with viral pneumonia are difficult to notice, and because the immune systems of children are not fully developed and they have poor immunity, they can easily become severely ill and even die. Analyzing the forensic autopsies and the histopathological characteristics could provide reference for pathological diagnosis of viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Lung , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(4): 332-334, 2020 Apr 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591071

ABSTRACT

Endotracheal intubation is an independent risk factor for respiratory infectious diseases. We conducted a retrospective study in 12 cases with COVID-19 who underwent endotracheal intubation at ICU of the Guangzhou eighth hospital from January 20 to February 10, 2020. The intubation procedure, anesthetic regimen, and complication were collected and analyzed. The 9 healthcare workers who involved in intubation received virus nucleic acid test and 14 days temperature monitoring. All 12 patients were successfully intubated under the guidance of bronchoscope, without any complications. Midazolam, Propofol and Morphine or fentanyl were used for sedation and analgesia, avoiding patients cough and agitated during the procedure. The 9 healthcare workers were protected under the Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) with positive pressure protective hood. The detection of oropharyngeal swab virus nucleic acid were negative in all 9 healthcare workers, none of them had fever or any respiratory symptoms. The PPE with positive pressure protective hood should be needed to perform bronchoscope-guided endotracheal intubation in patients with COVID-19, it could strengthen to protect healthcare workers from virus exposure.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopes , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 16-20, 2020 Feb.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11555

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since 2003, coronavirus has caused multiple major public health events that resulted in global epidemics, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Especially since COVID-19 outbroke in Wuhan, Hubei, in December 2019, coronavirus has had a significant impact on people's health and lives. But so far, the pathological diagnosis of COVID-19 has been relatively deficient: it is still confined to the pathological findings of punctured organs, and the majority of medical workers have poor awareness of its pathological characteristics. The COVID-19, as same as SARS and MERS, is caused by coronaviruses and can cause viral pneumonia. They have certain similarities. This article comprehensively reviews the pathological features observed in the autopsies of the aforementioned three diseases, in order to provide reference to the analysis of pathological changes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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