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1.
Environ Res ; : 112205, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466329

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, ventilation on transport has been improved to control the aerosol transmission. We utilized portable monitors to measure real-time concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0 and black carbon (BC) on six modes of transport and estimate personal exposures under the epidemic prevention. The mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0 and BC measured on transport were 18.8 ± 19.4, 16.6 ± 16.5, 12.2 ± 10.8 and 4.1 ± 6.9 µg/m3, respectively. It reduced PM levels on subway to apply the full fresh air mode rather than partial recirculation mode. Airplane had the lowest concentrations and the highest decay rates, implying the most efficient ventilation and filtration. PM were higher on intra-city transport than inter-city, and significantly increased on arrival at stations. BC and BC/PM ratios were higher on road transport than rail transport, indicating the contribution of exhaust emissions. The ventilation mode to exchange air with the outside and the positive association between concentrations and decay rates on high-speed train suggested filtration efficiency should be improved simultaneously with enhancing ventilation. Wearing facemasks on transport further protects passengers against PM exposure, which reduced personal exposure concentrations on four modes of transport lower than 10 µg/m3, the World Health Organization guideline.

2.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 1971(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1338608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and various infection control measures have made a great impact on the regular operation of global integrated circuit companies,which caused the“Chips shortage” Phenomenon in the automotive industry. Based on data collected from official channels, industry associations, SIA and enterprises, this paper performed an empirical analysis on the structure of global integrated circuit market, and studied supply and demand in the market. The results of the analyses showed that:1) the pandemic control measures and the re-allocation of market resources are the short-term factors unbalancing the supply and demand for automotive chips. 2) the global shortage of Chips of the automotive industry may continue and the risk of breaking the industrial chain is increasing. Because it is a long industry chain which relies on efficient cross-border collaboration, but it is lack of international prevention and control cooperation mechanism altogether. The current situation presents both challenges and opportunities to China. This paper proposes that China should take efforts in strengthening international cooperation;and improve the core competitiveness of China’s chip industry by the top-level designing and encouraging domestic enterprises to invest in research and development,and to improve their technical performance.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e046157, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242205

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore and compare the effect of global travel restrictions and public health countermeasures in response to COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: A data-driven spatio-temporal modelling to simulate the spread of COVID-19 worldwide for 150 days since 1 January 2020 under different scenarios. SETTING: Worldwide. INTERVENTIONS: Travel restrictions and public health countermeasures. MAIN OUTCOME: The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases could reach more than 420 million around the world without any countermeasures taken. Under timely and intensive global interventions, 99.97% of infections could be avoided comparing with non-interventions. The scenario of carrying out domestic travel restriction and public health countermeasures in China only could contribute to a significant decrease of the cumulative number of infected cases worldwide. Without global travel restriction in the study setting, 98.62% of COVID-19 cases could be avoided by public health countermeasures in China only compared with non-interventions at all. CONCLUSIONS: Public health countermeasures were generally more effective than travel restrictions in many countries, suggesting multinational collaborations in the public health communities in response to this novel global health challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
5.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130406, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169125

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries took strong lockdown policy to reduce disease spreading, resulting in mitigating the ambient air pollution due to less traffic and industrial emissions. However, limited studies focused on the household air pollution especially in rural area, the potential risk induced by indoor air pollution exposure was unknown during this period. This field study continuously measured real-time PM2.5 levels in kitchen, living room, and outdoor in the normal days (Period-1) and the days of COVID-19 lockdown overlapping the Chinese Spring Festival (Period-2) in rural homes in China. The average daily PM2.5 concentrations increased by 17.4 and 5.1 µg/m3 in kitchen and living room during Period-2, respectively, which may be due to more fuel consumption for cooking and heating caused by larger family sizes than those during the normal days. The ambient PM2.5 concentration in rural areas in Period-2 decreased by 6.7 µg/m3 compared to the Period-1, less than the drop in urban areas (26.8 µg/m3). An increase of mass fraction of very fine particles in ambient air was observed during lockdown overlapping annual festival days, which could be explained by the residential solid fuel burning. Due to higher indoor air pollution level and longer time spent in indoor environments, daily personal exposure to PM2.5 was 134 ± 40 µg/m3 in Period-2, which was significantly higher than that during in Period-1 (126 ± 27 µg/m3, p < 0.05). The increase of personal PM2.5 exposure during Period-2 could potentially have negative impact on human health, indicating further investigations should be performed to estimate the health impact of global COVID-19 lockdown on community, especially in rural homes using solid fuels as the routine fuels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Environmental Monitoring , Family Characteristics , Holidays , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 45, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The management of discharge COVID-19 patients with recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA is challenging. However, there are fewer scientific dissertations about the risk of recurrent positive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between SARS-COV-2 RNA positive duration (SPD) and the risk of recurrent positive. METHODS: This case-control multi-center study enrolled participants from 8 Chinese hospital including 411 participants (recurrent positive 241). Using unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, generalized additive model with a smooth curve fitting, we evaluated the associations between SPD and risk of recurrent positive. Besides, subgroup analyses were performed to explore the potential interactions. RESULTS: Among recurrent positive patients, there were 121 females (50.2%), median age was 50 years old [interquartile range (IQR): 38-63]. In non-adjusted model and adjusted model, SPD was associated with an increased risk of recurrent positive (fully-adjusted model: OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001); the curve fitting was not significant (P = 0.286). Comparing with SPD < 14 days, the risk of recurrent positive in SPD > 28 days was risen substantially (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.63, P = 0.004). Interaction and stratified analyses showed greater effect estimates of SPD and risk of recurrent positive in the hypertension, low monocyte count and percentage patients (P for interaction = 0.008, 0.002, 0.036, respectively). CONCLUSION: SPD was associated with a higher risk of recurrent positive and especially SPD > 28 day had a two-fold increase in the relative risk of re-positive as compared with SPD < 14 day. What's more, the risk may be higher among those with hypertension and lower monocyte count or percentage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recurrence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , Virus Shedding
7.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(10): 199-206, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116445

ABSTRACT

Summary: What is already known about this topic? The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic potentially affected prenatal care quality and maternal and fetal outcomes globally.What is added by this report? During COVID-19 pandemic period, the rates of caesarean sections (CS) and preterm birth for uninfected pregnant women increased slightly in areas that were relatively severely impacted by the pandemic in China. The overall number of prenatal examinations did not dramatically decrease, while the eligible examinations significantly decreased in Hubei Province.What are the implications for public health practice? Routine prenatal examinations had been well maintained during the pandemic period in China. In the future, in-time prenatal examinations should be provided to improve the quality of screening and management of high-risk pregnancy under pandemic-affected circumstances. Psychological counseling and transfer treatment channels should be strengthened for pregnant women during lockdown period.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125439, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101360

ABSTRACT

Viruses are omnipresent and persistent in wastewater, which poses a risk to human health. In this review, we summarise the different qualitative and quantitative methods for virus analysis in wastewater and systematically discuss the spatial distribution and temporal patterns of various viruses (i.e., enteric viruses, Caliciviridae (Noroviruses (NoVs)), Picornaviridae (Enteroviruses (EVs)), Hepatitis A virus (HAV)), and Adenoviridae (Adenoviruses (AdVs))) in wastewater systems. Then we critically review recent SARS-CoV-2 studies to understand the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic through wastewater surveillance. SARS-CoV-2 genetic material has been detected in wastewater from France, the Netherlands, Australia, Italy, Japan, Spain, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, and the USA. We then discuss the utility of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to estimate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of these viruses and generate human health risk assessment. Finally, we not only promote the prevention of viral infectious disease transmission through wastewater but also highlight the potential use of WBE as an early warning system for public health assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Australia , China , France , Humans , India , Italy , Japan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Waste Water
9.
Cell Rep ; 34(7): 108761, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062276

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global health threat caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 elicits a dysregulated immune response and a delayed interferon (IFN) expression in patients, which contribute largely to the viral pathogenesis and development of COVID-19. However, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the activation and repression of the innate immune response by SARS-CoV-2. We show that SARS-CoV-2 RNA activates the RIG-I-MAVS-dependent IFN signaling pathway. We further uncover that ORF9b immediately accumulates and antagonizes the antiviral type I IFN response during SARS-CoV-2 infection on primary human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. ORF9b targets the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator NEMO and interrupts its K63-linked polyubiquitination upon viral stimulation, thereby inhibiting the canonical IκB kinase alpha (IKKα)/ß/γ-NF-κB signaling and subsequent IFN production. Our findings thus unveil the innate immunosuppression by ORF9b and provide insights into the host-virus interplay during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Retinoic Acid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitination
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14031, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Excluded typical manifestation of pneumonia and acute respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 patients also have abnormal D-dimer concentration in the serum, but the results are controversial. METHOD: A meta-analysis first aims to explored the connection between D-dimer concentration and COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Our results found a significant relationship between D-dimer and COVID-19, with a pooled OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.32-2.48; P < .001). The pooled data were calculated with the REM as a high heterogeneity within the studies. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the WMD ranged from 1.69 (95% CI: 1.15 to 2.23) to 2.06 (95% CI: 1.51 to 2.62) and there was no publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed that the severity of patients with COVID-19 significance related to D-dimer concentrations. Meanwhile, the severe COVID-19 patients tend to have a higher concentration of D-dimer when compared with non-severe patients. REVIEW CRITERIA: We used MASH word and searched the online database and followed the inclusion and exclusion standard. The detailed information can be found in the text. MESSAGE FOR THE CLINIC: Our meta-analysis showed that the severity of patients with COVID-19 significance related to D-dimer concentrations. This may be helpful for the clinic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 560209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843841

ABSTRACT

Objective: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan City, China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. However, no special therapeutic drugs have been identified for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to search for drugs to effectively treat COVID-19. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a total of 162 adult inpatients (≥18 years old) from Ruijin Hospital (Shanghai, China) and Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) between January 27, 2020, and March 10, 2020. The enrolled COVID-19 patients were first divided into the Lianhuaqingwen (LHQW) monotherapy group and the LHQW + Arbidol combination therapy group. Then, these two groups were further classified into moderate and severe groups according to the clinical classification of COVID-19. Results: The early combined usage of LHQW and Arbidol can significantly accelerate the recovery of patients with moderate COVID-19 by reducing the time to conversion to nucleic acid negativity, the time to chest CT improvement, and the length of hospital stay. However, no benefit was observed in severe COVID-19 patients treated with the combination of LHQW + Arbidol. In this study, both Arbidol and LHQW were well tolerated without serious drug-associated adverse events. Conclusion: The early combined usage of LHQW and Arbidol may accelerate recovery and improve the prognosis of patients with moderate COVID-19.

12.
Radiol Infect Dis ; 7(3): 130-134, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726668

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the atypical computed tomography (CT) presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to comprehensively understand this highly infectious disease. Methods: The clinical and chest CT imaging data of 16 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed, and patients with atypical CT presentations were selected for analysis and review. Results: Of the 16 patients, 6 had atypical CT presentations, including 2 with faint ground glass opacities, 2 with single nodule, 1 with predominantly linear opacities, and 1 with predominantly reticular opacities. The dynamic changes of CT showed the faint ground glass opacities gradually became weak (2 cases). The scope of the single nodule was enlarged, and it developed into consolidation and residual fibrosis (2 cases). There was no obvious change of linear opacity (1 case). The reticular opacities were enlarged, then partially absorbed and new developed ground-glass opacities were found. Finally, the lesions were absorbed with residual fibrosis (1 case). Conclusion: Atypical CT presentations of COVID-19 can be classified as faint ground glass opacities, single nodule, linear opacities, and reticular opacities. Understanding the atypical presentation of COVID-19 is beneficial in the assessment and epidemic prevention and control of this disease.

13.
Radiol Infect Dis ; 7(4): 186-194, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697028

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) presentation and dynamic changes in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to improve understanding of this highly infectious disease. Methods: The clinical and CT data of 16 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Dynamic CTs were performed continuously after admission. Results: Of the patients, 14 were moderate cases, and 2 were severe. Twelve patients underwent CT at the early onset stage. Single nodules or ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were found in 2 patients and multiple bilateral pulmonary lesions in 8 (consolidation-like opacities with or without small nodules in five and large GGOs with interlobular septal thickening in three). Ten had lesion growth and enlargement on the second CT. Fourteen patients underwent CT during the progressive stage, which revealed GGOs and focal consolidation in 6 of them, lung consolidation opacities in 5, and simple, large GGOs with interlobular septal thickening in 3. In both severe cases, the lesions continued to enlarge and grow, and the extent of consolidation continued to expand. Conclusion: Low-dose chest CT can clearly reflect the morphology, density, and extent of COVID-19 nodules, and is beneficial for observing dynamic nodule changes and disease screening and monitoring.

14.
Radiol Infect Dis ; 7(2): 81-83, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232724

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is mainly characterized by pulmonary inflammation. The preferred imaging modality is chest computed tomography (CT) which plays an important role in early diagnosis, quarantine, and treatment as well as in the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. We report the imaging data from a confirmed case of COVID-19 admitted to our hospital. Our aims are to improve understanding of this disease and to facilitate early diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. A 70-year-old woman living in the epidemic area presented with a 2-day history of intermittent fever. Chest CT revealed multiple ground glass opacities in both lungs, mainly distributed subpleurally and in the middle and lateral lung fields, particularly in the right lung, where they had partially fused into patches. Local interlobular septal thickening was also observed. Throat swabs were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, which confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19. Chest CT plays a key role in the diagnosis of COVID-19, providing an accurate diagnosis and is a sensitive technique for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. It has the advantages of promptness, convenience, and high efficiency.

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