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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 20(9): 1828-1837, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740491

ABSTRACT

Fragments of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-7-one are found in many compounds with various types of biological activities, including the antiviral drug Riamilovir (Triazavirin®), which shows activity against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Therefore, the development of convenient methods for the synthesis of new derivatives of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-7-one is always in demand. This review systematizes the information on the most common synthetic methods for constructing the 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-7-one heterocyclic system.


Subject(s)
Triazines
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1961, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169399

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 reflects an inefficient immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2. Here we analyze, at the single cell level, plasmablasts egressed into the blood to study the dynamics of adaptive immune response in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care. Before seroconversion in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, peripheral plasmablasts display a type 1 interferon-induced gene expression signature; however, following seroconversion, plasmablasts lose this signature, express instead gene signatures induced by IL-21 and TGF-ß, and produce mostly IgG1 and IgA1. In the sustained immune reaction from COVID-19 patients, plasmablasts shift to the expression of IgA2, thereby reflecting an instruction by TGF-ß. Despite their continued presence in the blood, plasmablasts are not found in the lungs of deceased COVID-19 patients, nor does patient IgA2 binds to the dominant antigens of SARS-CoV-2. Our results thus suggest that, in severe COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 triggers a chronic immune reaction that is instructed by TGF-ß, and is distracted from itself.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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