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1.
Journal of the Operations Research Society of China ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1842698

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 initiated in 2019 and spread all over the world in 2020 has caused significant damages to the human society, making troubles to all aspects of our daily life. Facing the serious outbreak of the virus, we consider possible solutions from the perspectives of both governments and enterprises. Particularly, this paper discusses several applications of supply chain management, public resource allocation, and pandemic prevention using optimization and machine learning methods. Some useful insights in mitigating the pandemic and economy reopening are provided at the end of this paper. These insights might help governments to reduce the severity of the current pandemic and prevent the next round of outbreak. They may also improve companies’ reactions to the increasing uncertainties appearing in the business operations. Although the coronavirus imposes challenges to the entire society at the moment, we are confident to develop new techniques to prevent and eradicate the disease.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311935

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten global stability. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is mostly by respiratory droplets and direct contact but viral RNA fragments have also been detected in the faecal waste of patients with COVID-19. Cleanliness and effective sanitation of public toilets is a concern, as flushing the toilet is potentially an aerosol generating procedure. When the toilets are of the squatting type and without a cover, there exists a risk of viral contamination through the splashing of toilet water and aerosol generation. Methods: : This study reports an online survey of 134 people in China to determine whether the cleanliness of public toilets was a concern to the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether a squatting toilet was preferred to a seated design. Results: : The survey showed that 91% of participants preferred squatting toilets, but that 72% were apprehensive of personal contamination when using public toilets. Over 63% of the respondents had encountered an incidence of water splash and would prefer public toilets to be covered during flushing and 83% of these respondents preferred a foot-controlled device. Conclusions: : This survey suggests that consideration should be given to the installation of a simple foot-controlled device to cover public squatting toilets to help restrict potential COVID-19 contamination and to meet hygienic expectations of the public.

3.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284079

ABSTRACT

Many microorganisms have mechanisms that protect cells against attack from viruses. The fermentation components of Streptomyces sp. 1647 exhibit potent anti-influenza A virus (IAV) activity. This strain was isolated from soil in southern China in the 1970s, but the chemical nature of its antiviral substance(s) has remained unknown until now. We used an integrated multi-omics strategy to identify the antiviral agents from this streptomycete. The antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell (antiSMASH) analysis of its genome sequence revealed 38 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, and the target BGCs possibly responsible for the production of antiviral components were narrowed down to three BGCs by bioactivity-guided comparative transcriptomics analysis. Through bioinformatics analysis and genetic manipulation of the regulators and a biosynthetic gene, cluster 36 was identified as the BGC responsible for the biosynthesis of the antiviral compounds. Bioactivity-based molecular networking analysis of mass spectrometric data from different recombinant strains illustrated that the antiviral compounds were a class of structural analogues. Finally, 18 pseudo-tetrapeptides with an internal ureido linkage, omicsynins A1-A6, B1-B6, and C1-C6, were identified and/or isolated from fermentation broth. Among them, 11 compounds (omicsynins A1, A2, A6, B1-B3, B5, B6, C1, C2, and C6) are new compounds. Omicsynins B1-B4 exhibited potent antiviral activity against IAV with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of approximately 1 µmol∙L-1 and a selectivity index (SI) ranging from 100 to 300. Omicsynins B1-B4 also showed significant antiviral activity against human coronavirus HCoV-229E. By integrating multi-omics data, we discovered a number of novel antiviral pseudo-tetrapeptides produced by Streptomyces sp. 1647, indicating that the secondary metabolites of microorganisms are a valuable source of novel antivirals.

4.
Hong Kong Physiother J ; 41(2): 119-125, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten global stability. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is mostly by respiratory droplets and direct contact but viral RNA fragments have also been detected in the faecal waste of patients with COVID-19. Cleanliness and effective sanitation of public toilets is a concern, as flushing the toilet is potentially an aerosol generating procedure. When the toilets are of the squatting type and without a cover, there exists a risk of viral contamination through the splashing of toilet water and aerosol generation. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether the cleanliness of public toilets was a concern to the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether a squatting toilet was preferred to a seated design. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and posted on "WeChat" contact groups of the investigators. RESULTS: The survey showed that 91% of participants preferred squatting toilets, but that 72% were apprehensive of personal contamination when using public toilets. Over 63% of the respondents had encountered an incidence of water splash and would prefer public toilets to be covered during flushing and 83% of these respondents preferred a foot-controlled device. CONCLUSION: This survey suggests that consideration should be given to the installation of a simple foot-controlled device to cover public squatting toilets to help restrict potential COVID-19 contamination and to meet hygienic expectations of the public.

5.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 325-342, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057773

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of matrine in treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury. Potential targets related to matrine, COVID-19 and liver injury were identified from several databases. We constructed PPI network and screened the core targets according to the degree value. Then, GO and KEGG enrichment were carried out. Molecular docking technology was used to verify the affinity between matrine and the crystal structure of core target protein. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the effects of matrine on hub gene expression in liver tissue of liver injury mice and lung tissue of lung injury mice to further confirm the results of network pharmacological analysis. The results show that six core targets including AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6, BCL2L1 and ATM were identified. The potential therapeutic mechanism of matrine on COVID-19 combined with liver injury is closely related to regulate antiviral process, improve immune system and regulate the level of inflammatory factors. Molecular docking showed that matrine could spontaneously bind to the receptor protein and had strong binding force. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that matrine could significantly reduce the expression of AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6 and ATM in mice with liver injury or lung injury (P < 0.05), and increase the expression of BCL2L1 to a certain extent (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that matrine can achieve simultaneous intervention of COVID-19 combined with liver injury by multi-dimensional pharmacological mechanism.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Quinolizines/pharmacology , Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Quinolizines/administration & dosage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-932

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December, 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported to be a fe

8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104511, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733698

ABSTRACT

Background A variety of inflammatory and non-inflammatory indicators were increased in severe and critical Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and some of them were used to evaluate the severity and predict prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of these indicators in COVID-19 with different severity. Methods Clinical data of 46 patients with severe COVID-19 and 31 patients with critical COVID-19 were collected. The general characteristics and comorbidities of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. The initial and peak concentrations of serum troponin I (cTnI), D-dimer (D-D), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), initial and peak neutrophil counts and initial and trough lymphocyte counts were compared between two groups. The correlation between the variation of cTnI, D-D, CRP, IL-6, PCT, neutrophils, lymphocytes and the severity of the disease was analyzed. The efficacy of the initial concentrations of cTnI, D-D, CRP, IL-6, PCT, the initial neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in predicting critical COVID-19 were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results The initial and peak concentrations of cTnI, D-D, CRP, IL-6, PCT, initial and peak neutrophil counts in critical group were higher than those in severe group, the initial and trough counts of lymphocyte were lower than those in the severe group. Except for the initial level of PCT, the other differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The increase of cTnI, D-D, CRP, IL-6, PCT, neutrophils and the decrease of lymphocytes were related to the severity of the disease, OR values were 28.80, 2.20, 18.47, 10.80, 52.00, 9.60 and 21.08, respectively. Except for D-D, the other differences were statistically significant. The areas under ROC curves for predicting critical COVID-19 by initial concentrations of cTnI, D-D, CRP, IL-6, PCT, initial lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were 0.76, 0.78, 0.83, 0.95, 0.56, 0.68 and 0.62, respectively. Conclusions The severe and critical COVID-19 patients had significant differences in concentrations of serum cTnI, D-D, CRP, IL-6, PCT, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. The increase of cTnI, CRP, IL-6, PCT, neutrophils and decrease of lymphocytes indicated severe condition. The initial IL-6 might be a good indicator of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
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