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1.
Embase; 2020.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337379

ABSTRACT

The metagenome embedded in urban sewage is an attractive new data source to understand urban ecology and assess human health status at scales beyond a single host. Analyzing the viral fraction of wastewater in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has shown the potential of wastewater as aggregated samples for early detection, prevalence monitoring, and variant identification of human diseases in large populations. However, using census-based population size instead of real-time population estimates can mislead the interpretation of data acquired from sewage, hindering assessment of representativeness, inference of prevalence, or comparisons of taxa across sites. Here, we show that taxon abundance and sub-species diversisty in gut-associated microbiomes are new feature space to utilize for human population estimation. Using a population-scale human gut microbiome sample of over 1,100 people, we found that taxon-abundance distributions of gut-associated multi-person microbiomes exhibited generalizable relationships with respect to human population size. Here and throughout this paper, the human population size is essentially the sample size from the wastewater sample. We present a new algorithm, MicrobiomeCensus, for estimating human population size from sewage samples. MicrobiomeCensus harnesses the inter-individual variability in human gut microbiomes and performs maximum likelihood estimation based on simultaneous deviation of multiple taxa's relative abundances from their population means. MicrobiomeCensus outperformed generic algorithms in data-driven simulation benchmarks and detected population size differences in field data. New theorems are provided to justify our approach. This research provides a mathematical framework for inferring population sizes in real time from sewage samples, paving the way for more accurate ecological and public health studies utilizing the sewage metagenome.

4.
Bone Marrow Transplantation ; 56(SUPPL 1):270-271, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1312035
5.
Revista Estudos Institucionais-Journal of Institutional Studies ; 6(3):1049-1065, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1059968

ABSTRACT

Inserted in our research, still under development, on the marks of Brazilian legal culture, in this article, we seek to explain how Brazilian federalism, in its relations with citizenship, has revealed itself in the current pandemic times. In particular, from the analysis of the judgments already made by the STF in ADI 6341 we discus health protection, in relation to the role and limits of federative entities, in combating the pandemic.

6.
Annals of Oncology ; 31:S1028, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-806289

ABSTRACT

Background: On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic. Caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), this infection may remain asymptomatic. The European Society of Medical Oncology and the Portuguese Health Authority recommended both a symptomatic survey and laboratory testing in all cancer patients (pts) undergoing immunosuppressive treatment (IT). The impact of this measure is still unknown. We report our experience in a Portuguese center. Methods: Since March 2020, a symptomatic survey has been performed at our institution before each hospital visit. From April 6 through May 8, 2020, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 testing was added on cancer pts before undergoing IT. The impact of this intervention was evaluated comparing the hospitalization rate of cancer pts due to COVID-19, before and after the introduction of RT-PCR testing. Retrospective analysis of clinical data was performed. Results: 444 tests were carried out on 244 pts and laboratory SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 11 (5%);5 were male, with a median age of 65 years [34-76]. Breast and colorectal cancer were prevalent;2 pts had lung cancer;6 advanced disease. Ongoing IT in these pts was temporarily suspended: 9 pts under chemotherapy, 1 atezolizumab and 1 rituximab. Only 1 patient was symptomatic (9%) and previously hospitalized. No admission due to COVID-19 was registered in this group. Since March 7, 179 pts were admitted due to COVID-19 at our center: 12 were active cancer pts (6.7%) of which 4 were under IT. 6 of the oncological pts passed away, all of them had advanced diseases, 1 was under IT. Of the dead pts, lung and breast tumors were prevalent. Among all COVID-19 hospitalizations, the prevalence of pts under IT was similar before and after the implementation of the RT-PCR testing (2.2% vs. 2.4%). Conclusions: We found a significant percentage of active cancer pts diagnosed with asymptomatic COVID-19. Due to the small sample size of COVID-19 pts under IT, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of RT-PCR testing. However, on a long-term analysis, this intervention may reduce the risk of severe complications related to COVID-19 in cancer pts. Health education and dynamic organization are also important measures. Legal entity responsible for the study: The authors. Funding: Has not received any funding. Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

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