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Bali Journal of Anesthesiology ; 4(6):S31-S35, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471077


Currently, COVID-19 is spreading rapidly and presenting with different clinical features with different mortality rates worldwide. In the initial days of the pandemic, most of the patients presented with the complaints of lower respiratory tract infection of varying severity, and most of the deaths were also attributable to respiratory failure. As time progressed, more atypical presentations and causes of mortality were encountered according to different age groups. In the present scenario, a surge of COVID-19 cases is expected. Those new cases will also include patients with various problems requiring surgical interventions. In this brief review, we have discussed various presentations and mortality risks of COVID-19 infections in different age groups. We did literature searched on the PubMed database and included studies published in 2019 and 2020. Altogether, 503 articles were retrieved out of which 31 were analyzed to put up this summary. Important atypical findings in neonates and infants were axial hypotonia, drowsiness, moaning sound, intussusception, and late-onset neonatal sepsis with the cause of death being multi-organ failure. Frequently reported comorbidities among children were hydronephrosis, leukemia, and intussusception. Observed risk factors for unfavorable outcome in the adult population were obesity, HIV, tuberculosis, and the intake of immunosuppressive agents in the form of anticancer drugs and steroids. The factors adding to the vulnerability in the elderly population could be enumerated as diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart diseases, obesity, and cancers. © 2020 Bali Journal of Anesthesiology ;Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.

Journal of Neuroanaesthesiology and Critical Care ; 7(3):140-147, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1260975


The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered a global health crisis probably due to a lack of a reliable cure till date. Several clinical trials are ongoing, but initial results have not been overly promising. Convalescent plasma (CP), which refers to plasma collected from individuals recovered from an illness and developed antibodies against the pathogen, is also being proposed as a therapeutic option for COVID-19 treatment in severe cases to achieve short-term immunity against the virus. Use of CP is not new, and it has been used in various outbreaks over the past century, ranging from the Spanish influenza outbreak in 1918 to the recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). However, data available on its use in COVID-19 patients is limited. Use of CP so far is restricted to a rescue therapy and needs further trials to assess its possible use in other situations (prevention, postexposure prophylaxis) and patient populations (considering age and comorbid illnesses). In this review, we will try to summarize the current status of use of CP for COVID-19 and ongoing trials in India and elsewhere and will discuss the possible avenues for its use in future.