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1.
Med Res Arch ; 10(3)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836118

ABSTRACT

Epigenetics, hypothalamic-pituitary axes, environmental and metabolic influences, and transgenerational plasticity govern social behavior. Cognitive research considers the brain's default mode network (DMN) as a central hub that integrates various cognitive and social processing domains responsible for emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Hence, DMN is regarded as the "social brain." Upsurge in social turmoil, social anxiety, panic, depression, post-traumatic stress, hoarding, herd behavior, substance and behavioral addictions, sexual abuse, and violence in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic are intricately related to personality traits resulting in disruptive social cognition and social behavior, conceptualized as the result of unsettling and disruption of the functional nexus of the DMN. Considering overt and conspicuous display of neuroticism during the current pandemic, its impact upon modulation of the DMN functional nexus and the DMN itself, and the potential to presage cognitive impairment in the future, the authors caution that an increase in the global burden of dementia may be one of the long-term ramifications of COVID-19. Social behavior, a functional derivative of the DMN, can strikingly affect the functional nexus of DMN and the DMN itself, in a centripetal way via the phenomenon called "Experience-Dependent Plasticity," with long-term consequences. In this review, we intend to 1) decipher the association between social cognition and social behavior with the DMN, in time of COVID-19; and to 2) discuss the prospective aftermath of disrupted social behavior during the pandemic on modulation/alteration of functional connectomes of DMN or the DMN itself in the time ahead.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309757

ABSTRACT

Elderly people are the most sensitive and delicate part of society who must bear the major burn of disruptive social behavior of human being amidst the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Our aim was (1) to find out the root of disruption of societal integrity and self-centeredness by analyzing spokes of HEXACO;2) to delineate its possible relationship with the formation of Neuroticism and eventually Psychopathy, and 3) to search for the potential ways to get rid of this darkness. Human civilization is experiencing unique psychosocial problems through emerging COVID 19. Depression, panic buying, herd behavior, yellow journalism, “infodemic” spreading through social media, immense sufferings of marginalized people, children and elderly, a surge of addictive behavior, racism, domestic violence, rape, divorce, financial constraints, and stigmatization, all possibly stem from a constellation of different negative human behaviors which probably originate from negative deflection of components of HEXACO model of personality towards the genesis of the dark triad. COVID-19 and surge of the dark triad in form of Neuroticism, Narcissism and Machiavellianism are causing major mental health threat. Cultivations and practice of positive emotions and triumph of honesty, humility and humanity are utmost desirable to save Earth and its habitants from the cruel claws of this pandemic.

3.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 57(1): 166, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mediated immune dysregulation and cytokine storm can precipitate and aggravate Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA), influencing its disease course. This index study was undertaken to prospectively evaluate the status of neurological symptoms of MMA in relation to COVID-19 affection. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Follow-up MMA patients of institute's Stroke-clinic were telephonically interview from 24th March to 30th September, 2020. The first call familiarized them with COVID-19 symptoms and neurological manifestations of MMA, followed by monthly-calls with predesigned questionnaire. Patients with suggestion of COVID-19 underwent nasopharyngeal-swab-testing for COVID-19 Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive cases were subjected to antibody levels for COVID-19 Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) 8-12 weeks after recovery. During symptomatic phase till 14 days of asymptomatic, they were contacted daily/alternate day. Any new onset/worsening of neurological symptoms were noted. The baseline clinico-radiological details were obtained from stroke-clinic registery. Subsequently, all data were analyzed and compared using descriptive statistics. Seventy four of 104 MMA patients could be contacted and enrolled. The mean age, time since last follow-up and compliance to previously prescribed medication were 23.5 ± 16.1 years, 9.2 ± 1.7 months and 90.5% (n = 67), respectively. Aggravation/new onset neurological symptom were seen in 64.3% (n = 9) of COVID-19 positive MMA (n = 14), of which 8 were seen among the 11 pediatric COVID-19 positive MMA [(Transient ischemic attacks) TIA-4, TIA with headache-1, seizure-2, stroke causing mortality-1]. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection can potentiate MMA causing significant morbidity and mortality, especially in children. Providing optimal care for severe diseases (such as MMA) in developing countries during pandemic remains a challenge.

4.
J Patient Exp ; 8: 23743735211059051, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538048

ABSTRACT

The elderly population is a sensitive and delicate cohort of society who is being compelled to bear the significant smoulders of disruptive social behavior of humankind amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim for this review was (1) to find out the root of disruption of societal integrity and self-centeredness by analyzing the spokes of HEXACO; (2) to delineate their possible relationships with the formation of Neuroticism and eventually Psychopathy, which have endangered human civilization the most in this pandemic; and (3) to search for the potential ways to get rid of these dark times. The constellation of different negative human behaviors probably originate from the negative deflection of components of the HEXACO model of personality towards the genesis of the dark triad. COVID-19 pandemic and upsurge of the dark triad in the form of Neuroticism, Narcissism and Machiavellianism potentially portend major mental health threats. Cultivation and practice of positive emotions and triumph of honesty, humility and humanity are imperative to save the mankind from the savagery of this pandemic.

6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102305, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506436

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 associated several neurological manifestation in the form of Post-infectious transverse myelitis(TM) and para-infectious TM has been reported. A 54 years old female patient presented to us with acute retention of urine and upper motor neuron type of bilateral lower limb weakness in shock stage, after 12 days of covid-19 infection. MRI (3T) brain and spine showed no abnormality and Nerve conduction study showed acquired motor axonal polyradiculoneuropathy in bilateral lower limbs. We herein present an index case of MRI-negative myeloradiculoneuropathy following covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Motor Neuron Disease/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Motor Neuron Disease/etiology
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377695

ABSTRACT

AIMS: 1: Describe the epidemiology and determine risk factors for COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. 2: Elaborate the clinical spectrum of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM), pattern of neuroaxis involvement and it's radiological correlates. METHODS: Observational study. Consecutive, confirmed cases of mucormycosis (N = 55) were included. A case of mucormycosis was defined as one who had clinical and radiological features consistent with mucormycosis along with demonstration of the fungus in tissue via KOH mount/culture/histopathological examination (HPE). Data pertaining to epidemiology, risk factors, clinico-radiological features were analysed using percentage of total cases. RESULTS: Middle aged, diabetic males with recent COVID-19 infection were most affected. New onset upper jaw toothache was a striking observation in several cases. Among neurological manifestations headache, proptosis, vision loss, extraocular movement restriction; cavernous sinus, meningeal and parenchymal involvement were common. Stroke in ROCM followed a definitive pattern with watershed infarction. CONCLUSIONS: New onset upper jaw toothache and loosening of teeth should prompt an immediate search for mucormycosis in backdrop of diabetic patients with recent COVID-19 disease, aiding earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. Neuroaxis involvement was characterized by a multitude of features pertaining to involvement of optic nerve, extraocular muscles, meninges, brain parenchyma and internal carotid artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Prevalence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Neurohospitalist ; 12(1): 147-150, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337501

ABSTRACT

Seizures and involuntary movements are relatively rare, but well-known neurological complications of non-ketotic hyperglycemia. While hemichorea-hemiballism secondary to diabetic striatopathy is increasingly being reported, unilateral caudate atrophy resulting from chronic vascular insufficiency/insult in a backdrop of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus is sparsely described in literature. We herein report a 75-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with concurrent epilepsia partialis continua involving left side of her face and hemichorea on the right side in the context of non-ketotic hyperglycemia. Neuroimaging revealed a space-occupying lesion suggestive of low-grade glioma in the right superior frontal cortex and left-sided caudate atrophy as well. Possibly, space-occupying lesion in motor cortex acted as an inciting factor for seizures and non-ketotic hyperglycemia further lowered the seizures threshold. On the other hand, atrophied left caudate had led to persistent choreiform movements secondary to chronic uncontrolled hyperglycemia. The simultaneous presence of acute and chronic neurological complications of diabetes mellitus makes this case unique. It also highlights the need for strict control of blood glucose and utility of appropriate neuroimaging to rapidly diagnose and prevent further complications.

9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 358: 577655, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293993

ABSTRACT

Movement disorders are extremely rare in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and in the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We herein report a 34-years-old previously healthy woman who presented with a febrile illness and a constellation of movement disorders (predominantly myoclonus) followed by encephalopathy. After exclusion of common infectious, autoimmune and paraneoplastic etiologies, she was diagnosed to have COVID-19 induced ADEM, which responded to intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Our case adds to the tally of cases of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection related movement disorders and to the exceedingly rare list of cases in which movement disorders preceded ADEM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Movement Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Movement Disorders/etiology , Adult , Female , Humans
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e25988, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention are the key factors for improving outcomes in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this observational longitudinal study was to identify nonoverlapping severity subgroups (ie, clusters) among patients with COVID-19, based exclusively on clinical data and standard laboratory tests obtained during patient assessment in the emergency department. METHODS: We applied unsupervised machine learning to a data set of 853 patients with COVID-19 from the HM group of hospitals (HM Hospitales) in Madrid, Spain. Age and sex were not considered while building the clusters, as these variables could introduce biases in machine learning algorithms and raise ethical implications or enable discrimination in triage protocols. RESULTS: From 850 clinical and laboratory variables, four tests-the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the number of neutrophils-were enough to segregate the entire patient pool into three separate clusters. Further, the percentage of monocytes and lymphocytes and the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) distinguished cluster 3 patients from the other two clusters. The highest proportion of deceased patients; the highest levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and CRP; the highest number of neutrophils; and the lowest percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes characterized cluster 1. Cluster 2 included a lower proportion of deceased patients and intermediate levels of the previous laboratory tests. The lowest proportion of deceased patients; the lowest levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and CRP; the lowest number of neutrophils; and the highest percentages of monocytes and lymphocytes characterized cluster 3. CONCLUSIONS: A few standard laboratory tests, deemed available in all emergency departments, have shown good discriminative power for the characterization of severity subgroups among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cell Count , Cluster Analysis , Datasets as Topic , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Spain/epidemiology , Triage
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 817-823, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is causing insurmountable psychosocial impact on the whole mankind. Marginalized community, particularly those with substance use disorders (SUD), are particularly vulnerable to contract the infection and also likely to suffer from greater psychosocial burden. This article analyses the intricate bi-directional relationship between COVID-19 and addiction. METHODS: Pubmed and Google Scholar are searched with the following key terms- "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV2", "Pandemic", "Addiction", "Opioid", "Alcohol", "Smoking", "Addiction Psychiatry", "Deaddiction", "Substance use disorders", "Behavioral addiction". Few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and addiction have also been added as per context. RESULTS: People with SUD are at greater risk of worse COVID-19 outcome. There is surge of addictive behaviors (both new and relapse) including behavioral addiction in this period. Withdrawal emergencies and death are also being increasingly reported. Addicted people are especially facing difficulties in accessing the healthcare services which are making them prone to procure drugs by illegal means. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 and addiction are the two pandemics which are on the verge of collision causing major public health threat. While every effort must be taken to make the public aware of deleterious effects of SUD on COVID-19 prognosis, the resumption of deaddiction services and easier accessibility of prescription drugs are needs of the hour.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/complications , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Marginalization/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925641, 2020 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis (AHNE) is a rare manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. AHNE usually involves the subcortical white matter but not the cortical grey matter. This study describes the disruptive effects of AHNE associated with SARS-CoV-2 on cognitive function in a previously healthy and sound middle-aged woman resulting from alterations in cortical areas involved in the cognitive network. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old previously healthy woman with a history of inter-state travel developed a flu-like illness, followed by acute, steadily progressive cognitive impairment. She was admitted in a comatose state after a first tonic-clonic seizure. Blood tests were non-informative. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was indicative of AHNE. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed mild lymphocytosis with normal protein and normal glucose but an elevated IgG index. After testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, she was administered steroids. Treatment was ineffective, and the patient died. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 is a potential central nervous system (CNS) pathogen, which may manifest as AHNE. These patients may present with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and frontal dysexecutive syndrome, with cognitive impairment being the presenting feature of neuro-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The patient described in this report is unique for acute-onset and isolated cognitive impairments due to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of clinical or radiological respiratory manifestations. These findings may help in the early detection and diagnosis of neuro-COVID-19, especially among clinicians and neurologists working in areas of endemic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Encephalitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/cerebrospinal fluid , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology
18.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
20.
Minerva Pediatr ; 72(3): 226-235, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625249

ABSTRACT

Although medical literature shows that children are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease (COVID-19), they are hit the hardest by psychosocial impact of this pandemic. Being quarantined in homes and institutions may impose greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children's usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Incidences of domestic violence, child abuse, adulterated online contents are on the rise. Children of single parent and frontline workers suffer unique problems. The children from marginalized communities are particularly susceptible to the infection and may suffer from extended ill-consequences of this pandemic, such as child labor, child trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation and death etc. Parents, pediatricians, psychologists, social workers, hospital authorities, government and non-governmental organizations have important roles to play to mitigate the psychosocial ill-effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents. To provide the basic amenities, social security, medical care, and to minimize the educational inequities among the children of the different strata of the society are foremost priorities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Emergency Responders/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Life Change Events , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Marginalization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
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